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Fig. 3 Probably the back and front view of a single early Final Jomon goggle- eyed figure, described as " Two dogufrom Tsugaru', in an early report on the discoveries of dogufrom Kamegaoka ( in modern- day Aomori prefecture), in the Tanki manrokuof 1824. Encountering dogu25 first scientific archaeological investigations at the shell- midden sites of omori. 5 These were prehistoric refuse mounds of edible mollusc shells that were uncovered during the construction of a new railroad from Tokyo to Yokohama. Morse described the pottery he found there as ' cord marked', or jomon, subsequently naming the period in which it was made. He did not report any dogu, although Harada Masayuki considers that one of the carefully illustrated pottery sherds may well be from a ceramic figure rather than a vessel, but investigations of other shell mounds did reveal their presence. In 1879, the same year that Morse published his report of the omori excavation, Shirai Mitsutaro( 1863- 1932) published the first archaeological treatise on dogu, Thoughts on dogufrom shell middens. It was based on discoveries in the Kantoregion and at Kamegaoka, some of which were then in the possession of a Baron Kanda Takahira. Kanda organized one of the first ever exhibitions of Japanese archaeological artefacts, and was closely involved in the formation of the imperial collections, later to become the Tokyo National Museum. Shirai had actually participated in the excavations of shell middens in Kanto, and, unlike the Edo antiquarians who preceded him, paid close attention to the stone tools and pottery sherds associated with the dogu. He discussed their relative chronology and also offered a number of interpretations for their use, such as toys, ritual images and ornaments. Shirai's ideas were taken up and debated in the pages of the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Tokyo, founded in the 1880s by one of the most influential early Japanese archaeologists, Tsuboi Shogoro( 1863- 1913). Tsuboi spent three years in London, where he studied with the pioneering social anthropologist Edward Tylor and spent time at the British Museum. During this period he formulated his theory of the ' snow goggles' that appear on the goggle- eyed dogu( fig. 4). Tsuboi drew on ethnography for his research into prehistoric customs and practices. This led him to propose that the goggle- eyed form, which we now date to the Final Jomon, was representative of beings wearing snow goggles of the type used by the native peoples of the Arctic. Reflecting the preoccupations of early Western ethnography, namely the identification of the different races and their attendant customs, Tsuboi also developed a view as to who had made the dogu. He proposed that they were the work of the Korobokkuru, a race of people mentioned in early Japanese chronicles. Although his ideas were discredited in the light of evidence from physical anthropology, ethnography and anthropology, by the time he died in St Petersburg in 1913 much of the foundation of doguresearch had been laid. In terms of form and manufacture, archaeological records show that dogu came in both small and large sizes. Some were made of solid clay; others were hollow. Some were very finely made, indicating that they were not mere toys; others were much cruder. While some were designed to stand up; others could only lie flat. As we have already seen, doguwere often found in shell middens along with food remains, suggesting that they had been thrown away rather than carefully buried, and most were broken into fragments. Tsuboi proposed that they were discarded once their special powers had gone and the occasion they served had passed, and that breaking them possibly related to the belief systems of the people who made them. While some appeared to be naked, others were clothed. Some wore masks, while others revealed their faces. Personal accessories, too, were often depicted, including ear and lip ornaments and

28 When a face is visible, features shown include eyes, ears, nose, mouth, eyebrows, lips and lines suggesting tatooing Limbs are often reduced and very stylized Body decoration suggests clothing A central line down the torso may represent the negra lignea, associated with pregnancy, or may just be the central axis Look for hairdos and headgear Mask Many figures have evidence of breasts Swollen bellies suggest pregnancy Large hips suggest a feminine form Evidence of genitalia Feet and toes are only occasionally shown Some have elaboration on shoulders and elbows Dogu features