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28 When a face is visible, features shown include eyes, ears, nose, mouth, eyebrows, lips and lines suggesting tatooing Limbs are often reduced and very stylized Body decoration suggests clothing A central line down the torso may represent the negra lignea, associated with pregnancy, or may just be the central axis Look for hairdos and headgear Mask Many figures have evidence of breasts Swollen bellies suggest pregnancy Large hips suggest a feminine form Evidence of genitalia Feet and toes are only occasionally shown Some have elaboration on shoulders and elbows Dogu features

26Encountering dogu27 the horned- owl variety ( mimizuku) and the triangular- headed forms ( yamagata), as well as the goggle- eyed figures ( shakoki) and the apparently more realistic representations - a typology still used today. Excavations around the country produced more and more material to be integrated into these frameworks, and a number of scholars turned their attention to interpreting doguin terms of reconstructions of Jomon religion. Torii Ryuzo( 1870- 1953), ethnologist and prehistorian, who undertook extensive research across much of East Asia, from Korea and Taiwan to Manchuria, as it was falling under the influence of Japan, in 1922 published his influential Thoughts on Stone Age Religion and Mother Goddess Beliefs. This set out an explicit identification of doguas female earth deities, an approach that was further developed by Yawata Ichiro( 1902- 87) and oba Iwao ( 1899- 1975; see p. 51). This cluster of important studies established the distinction between everyday, utilitarian artefacts and ritual artefacts such as dogu, which were put to apparently non- productive uses. 7 Major developments in studies of dogufigurines continued in the second half of the twentieth century. A more detailed chronological sequence began to emerge with the publication of Esaka Teruya's comprehensive survey in 1960. A major exhibition of works from all over Japan was held at the Suntory Museum of Art, Tokyo in 1969 ( fig. 33, p. 48), the last time that ceramic figures were brought together until the present exhibition. Five years later Mizuno Masayoshi published his interpretation of figurine rituals as the underpinning of social relations in Jomon settlements. 8Mizuno introduced a new sophistication into dogustudies and, influenced by traditional Japanese religious beliefs, engendered a fresh interest in the archaeology of symbolism and social relations. The later decades of the twentieth century witnessed an unprecedented intensity of archaeological activity across Japan as a result of the economic boom and developer- funded archaeological investigation. Large infrastructure projects, including new towns, road and rail systems, and the construction of huge dams, all led to a vast increase in the number of dogubeing discovered. Fig. 5 An early typology of dogu, published by ono Nobutaroin the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Tokyo[ Tokyo jinruigakkai zasshi], volume 296 from 1910.