26Encountering dogu27 the horned- owl variety ( mimizuku) and the triangular- headed forms ( yamagata), as well as the goggle- eyed figures ( shakoki) and the apparently more realistic representations - a typology still used today. Excavations around the country produced more and more material to be integrated into these frameworks, and a number of scholars turned their attention to interpreting doguin terms of reconstructions of Jomon religion. Torii Ryuzo( 1870- 1953), ethnologist and prehistorian, who undertook extensive research across much of East Asia, from Korea and Taiwan to Manchuria, as it was falling under the influence of Japan, in 1922 published his influential Thoughts on Stone Age Religion and Mother Goddess Beliefs. This set out an explicit identification of doguas female earth deities, an approach that was further developed by Yawata Ichiro( 1902- 87) and oba Iwao ( 1899- 1975; see p. 51). This cluster of important studies established the distinction between everyday, utilitarian artefacts and ritual artefacts such as dogu, which were put to apparently non- productive uses. 7 Major developments in studies of dogufigurines continued in the second half of the twentieth century. A more detailed chronological sequence began to emerge with the publication of Esaka Teruya's comprehensive survey in 1960. A major exhibition of works from all over Japan was held at the Suntory Museum of Art, Tokyo in 1969 ( fig. 33, p. 48), the last time that ceramic figures were brought together until the present exhibition. Five years later Mizuno Masayoshi published his interpretation of figurine rituals as the underpinning of social relations in Jomon settlements. 8Mizuno introduced a new sophistication into dogustudies and, influenced by traditional Japanese religious beliefs, engendered a fresh interest in the archaeology of symbolism and social relations. The later decades of the twentieth century witnessed an unprecedented intensity of archaeological activity across Japan as a result of the economic boom and developer- funded archaeological investigation. Large infrastructure projects, including new towns, road and rail systems, and the construction of huge dams, all led to a vast increase in the number of dogubeing discovered. Fig. 5 An early typology of dogu, published by ono Nobutaroin the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Tokyo[ Tokyo jinruigakkai zasshi], volume 296 from 1910.
30 Fig. 9 The designs on some doguare suggestive of items of clothing: ( from left to right: a shawl ( cat. 52), trousers ( cat. 57), trunks ( cat. 12) and leggings ( cat. 56). Fig. 10 The faces of some dogusuggest tattooing ( from top to bottom: cats 63, 1 and 2). styles, as is the case with many of the horned- owl dogu; indeed there may be parallels between the plaiting of hair and the twisting of plant fibres for cord-marked pots. The very elaborate projections seen on the heads of the Final Jomon goggle- eyed figures may be expressions of hairstyles. Having dealt with hair, the dogumakers turned to clothing or otherwise decorating the bodies of their creations. In the temperate climate enjoyed by many Jomon people, it is likely that they wore clothes made of plant fibres. 13 Plants such as karamushiwere used to make cloth, which would have been sewn using animal sinews threaded through bone pins. 14These garments were likely to have been supplemented by animal furs and skins in cold weather. The bodies of a number of dogubear designs that suggest such clothing: trousers or loincloths and upper body garments, perhaps indicated by the Y-shaped incised lines that extend from the neck down to the lower torso ( fig. 9). A flat cruciform figure from Ishigami, dating to the beginning of the Middle Jomon, has such a line, and a series of parallel vertical lines on each arm might reflect a sleeved garment. The punctate patterns on the shoulders of the figure from Kamikurokoma have been interpreted as representing a blouse or shoulder throw of some kind, a form that became popular during the Middle Jomon and was further elaborated in the horned- owl figures of the Late Jomon. Patterning on the knees of figures from Miyata and Chojagahara may represent the embroidery worked on trousers while the bands of denticulated designs on the figures from Kamioka and Nomotetai, among others, indicate that decorated hems and cuffs were coming into fashion during the Late Jomon. Other dogu, however, have no patterning on their bodies, perhaps suggesting that they are naked. The report of the excavations at Tanabatake suggests that the ' naked' Venus ( cat. 3) may have been dressed in a smock of some sort, but there is no concrete evidence to support this. It is also possible that body patterning, or garments, were intended to draw attention to certain parts of the body. This may be the case with the ' grass skirts' on the Kamikuroiwa pebbles ( fig. 6). Fujinuma Kunihiko, in his account of the Jomon people, suggests that most Jomon probably went barefoot, and notes that there are no depictions of doguwearing shoes - many doguin fact have incised lines on the feet indicating toes. He does refer, however, to the dogufrom Yokomachi in Tokyo, which has patterns on its feet that may suggest footwear of some kind ( see p. 55). 15The Tera site in Nagano prefecture produced some clay objects resembling boots, but it is not until after the Jomon period that representations of shoes, perhaps made of fur or fish- skin, are seen at sites such as Sharimachi in Hokkaido. As well as clothes and hairstyles, several doguare patterned in a way that suggests tattooing or painting of the body ( fig. 10). In many parts of the world,