30 Fig. 9 The designs on some doguare suggestive of items of clothing: ( from left to right: a shawl ( cat. 52), trousers ( cat. 57), trunks ( cat. 12) and leggings ( cat. 56). Fig. 10 The faces of some dogusuggest tattooing ( from top to bottom: cats 63, 1 and 2). styles, as is the case with many of the horned- owl dogu; indeed there may be parallels between the plaiting of hair and the twisting of plant fibres for cord-marked pots. The very elaborate projections seen on the heads of the Final Jomon goggle- eyed figures may be expressions of hairstyles. Having dealt with hair, the dogumakers turned to clothing or otherwise decorating the bodies of their creations. In the temperate climate enjoyed by many Jomon people, it is likely that they wore clothes made of plant fibres. 13 Plants such as karamushiwere used to make cloth, which would have been sewn using animal sinews threaded through bone pins. 14These garments were likely to have been supplemented by animal furs and skins in cold weather. The bodies of a number of dogubear designs that suggest such clothing: trousers or loincloths and upper body garments, perhaps indicated by the Y-shaped incised lines that extend from the neck down to the lower torso ( fig. 9). A flat cruciform figure from Ishigami, dating to the beginning of the Middle Jomon, has such a line, and a series of parallel vertical lines on each arm might reflect a sleeved garment. The punctate patterns on the shoulders of the figure from Kamikurokoma have been interpreted as representing a blouse or shoulder throw of some kind, a form that became popular during the Middle Jomon and was further elaborated in the horned- owl figures of the Late Jomon. Patterning on the knees of figures from Miyata and Chojagahara may represent the embroidery worked on trousers while the bands of denticulated designs on the figures from Kamioka and Nomotetai, among others, indicate that decorated hems and cuffs were coming into fashion during the Late Jomon. Other dogu, however, have no patterning on their bodies, perhaps suggesting that they are naked. The report of the excavations at Tanabatake suggests that the ' naked' Venus ( cat. 3) may have been dressed in a smock of some sort, but there is no concrete evidence to support this. It is also possible that body patterning, or garments, were intended to draw attention to certain parts of the body. This may be the case with the ' grass skirts' on the Kamikuroiwa pebbles ( fig. 6). Fujinuma Kunihiko, in his account of the Jomon people, suggests that most Jomon probably went barefoot, and notes that there are no depictions of doguwearing shoes - many doguin fact have incised lines on the feet indicating toes. He does refer, however, to the dogufrom Yokomachi in Tokyo, which has patterns on its feet that may suggest footwear of some kind ( see p. 55). 15The Tera site in Nagano prefecture produced some clay objects resembling boots, but it is not until after the Jomon period that representations of shoes, perhaps made of fur or fish- skin, are seen at sites such as Sharimachi in Hokkaido. As well as clothes and hairstyles, several doguare patterned in a way that suggests tattooing or painting of the body ( fig. 10). In many parts of the world,
Encountering dogu29 The National Museum of Japanese History supported the creation of a nationwide computer database, a project that generated symposia in most prefectures where doguhad been found, with the subsequent publication in 1997- 2000 of four authoritative volumes entitled Basics of Research on Ceramic Figures. 9 Although this project, a response to the massive increase in available data, inevitably concentrated on quantification and description, it provided the foundation for the new interpretive approaches that are now beginning to emerge. By focusing on the fundamental questions first posed by Meiji- period pioneers including Tsuboi Shogoro, it has stimulated an active engagement with contemporary theories and methods, energizing archaeology and art history around the world. Looking at dogu One of the striking characteristics of doguis the various ways in which the body and its accoutrements are presented ( fig. 8). Some seem to express nothing more than a pared down, abstracted ' idea' of the body. Others reflect apparently realistic perceptions of it. Different examples again emphasize particular aspects of the body - certain features and limbs, specific details of clothing or ornamentation. One thing is certain: these doguwere for the most part carefully designed, and they repay careful scrutiny on the part of the viewer. Interpreting this variety, and understanding why certain attributes are emphasized, missing or abstracted, enables us to think of dogu- and the Jomon people - in new ways. It is likely that each of these aspects carries symbolic meanings relating to Jomon understandings of the body, both social and cultural. The degree of elaboration of hairstyles, clothing, tattooing and other ornamentation on doguincreases dramatically from the Middle Jomon onwards, and these features have attracted attention since the first Meiji- period accounts. The oldest representations of the body from the archipelago - the small flat greenstone pebbles from Kamikuroiwa and the stone figure resembling a Kokeshi doll from Iwato in Kyushu - have engraved lines suggesting long flowing hair ( fig. 6). Esaka points out that, prior to the advent of metal blades and scissors, managing hair was a precarious business, with the sharp blades of obsidian tools probably put to good use. 10Hairpins and combs were used from early on to keep hair in place: pins, thought to have been used for this purpose, have been discovered at Kamikuroiwa and many other sites across Japan, dating to the end of the Initial Jomon. These were often made from deer antlers, but there are also examples made of bird bones. 11Some were carefully decorated, such as a triangular- headed example, 5 cm long, from Hanawadai. Lacquered wooden hair combs appear in the Early Jomon deposits at Torihama in Fukui prefecture, and in large numbers in the Final Jomon at the waterlogged sites of north- eastern Honshu. 12 Jomon people seem to have styled their hair in a variety of ways, and by the Middle Jomon the dogumakers were paying close attention to this aspect of their creations. The Nagayama figures from Toyama prefecture, precursors to the standing dogu, have carefully plaited hair even if they are given no facial features. The figure known as the ' Jomon Venus', found at Tanabatake in Nagano prefecture, has particularly elaborate patterning on the top of its head, suggesting loosely coiled braids of hair ( see fig. 40, p. 55). Some of the designs used to indicate hair reflect the prevailing cord- marked patterns of the different pottery Fig. 7 Jomon doguexhibit a wide variety of hairdos and headgear ( clockwise from top left: cats 3, 2, 29, 1, 31 and 20). Fig. 8 ( Opposite) Jomon doguare very varied and much of their interest lies in the details of facial features, hairstyles and headgear, and facial and body decoration. Many of these features are somewhat abstract, giving many of the dogua transformed, and often strikingly contemporary, look. Fig. 6 Two of 13 small Incipient Jomon etched stones from Kamikuroiwa site, Ehime prefecture, the earliest representations of humans from the Japanese archipelago, thought to show long hair, breasts and grass skirts ( h: 2.3 cm).