Fig. 11 Meiji period scholars such as ono Nobutaro suggested that the designs on the faces of some dogurepresented tattoos. A series of early articles about dogu, including this one, were published in the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Tokyo from 1910. Encountering dogu31 notably the Pacific, tattooing is an important part of personal identification and marks the boundary between the interior and the exterior of the individual. Esaka identified two main forms of tattoo on the faces of dogu. 16The first consists of lines running down from the eyes to the cheeks, possibly tears. The second comprises patterns around the mouth, sometimes forming triangles. 17 Completing the look of the doguwas an array of personal accessories, including ear ornaments and possibly necklaces. Archaeology highlights the accessories Jomon people used, including beads and shell armlets, and various types of ear ornament. In the Early Jomon thin rounded stones, with a slit to attach them to the earlobe, were popular, quite similar to examples from north-eastern China. It is not until the Late Jomon that ear ornaments begin to be reflected on dogu, when they appear in various forms: circular, mushroom-shaped, or projecting ( fig. 13). Some of the cylindrical dogu, for example that from Tokonauchi in Ibaraki, have projections from the earlobes suggesting some form of ornamentation, and some of the triangular- headed dogualso have incisions and other patterns suggesting that ear ornaments were present. The circular relief designs on a number of the horned- owl figures are probably also ear ornaments. By the end of the Late Jomon ear ornaments were perhaps being worn by many in Japan, and in the Final Jomon it seems that they were being produced by specialist workshops. One at Kayano in Gunma prefecture was producing exquisite circular interlaced ear spools, which may have been inserted into pierced earlobes ( fig. 12). These have been excavated in the Kanto region, dating from the Final Jomon period, and in Tohoku large ear ornaments are also known. This high degree of attention to bodily ornamentation in dogufrom the Middle Jomon onwards may speak of a rich variety of meanings attached to various parts of the body among the many communities of the Jomon archipelago. Esaka, however, is correct to remind us that we are not necessarily seeing direct reflections of how the dogumakers might have wanted to see themselves, and that they were adept at exaggeration and abstraction of aspects of their creations. Fig. 13 A number of doguare depicted with ear ornaments ( from top to bottom: cats 26, 30 and 31). Fig. 12 This line drawing shows a circular interlaced ear spool earring from Kayano, Gunma prefecture.
Fig. 17 The clay mask from Mamachi ( top: cat. 66) was probably a death mask originally attached to a grave marker, while the dogufrom Nakappara ( bottom: cat. 22) is shown wearing a mask. These masks show that Jomon people were aware of the possiblity of taking on a different personality. 34 Transformed spirits: the power of masks Jomon people, especially from the later Jomon period, also made clay masks, and some of the doguare depicted wearing clay masks too ( fig. 17). Some were apparently death masks, while others may have been used in ritual performances. Masks have been discovered in a variety of prehistoric contexts and across different cultures around the world, but they are generally used as tools of expression on special occasions - for festivals, exorcism, dance and drama. 21 They may have been used in Jomon thanksgiving activities, in which spirits, ancestors or the recently dead would be offered thanks to ensure plentiful harvests. Such performances were perhaps regarded as a means of harnessing, or projecting, the power of nature that was so important during the Jomon period and probably took place in specially designated spaces. Early Japanese masks were made from large seashells, with three pierced openings resembling the eyes and mouth of a human face. Examples of these seashell masks, found in Kyushu and dating to the Middle Jomon period, are stylistically similar to excavated materials from mainland China and the Korean peninsula, but they did not appear to spread to the Honshu area. In northern Honshu it is clay masks that are frequently found. 22Unlike their seashell counterparts they form an entirely separate tradition from that found in China. Although many fewer in number than the dogu, these masks have some striking attributes. They comprise two types: one with pierced openings for eyes and mouth and one without. Those with openings, dating to the Late Jomon period, have animated expressions that developed during the Final Jomon period into a more frozen gaze, without openings. The masks from Makumae ( cat. 65) and Mawaki in Ishikawa prefecture, for example, have distinctive curved noses and seem very expressive - some even depict tears - unlike the somewhat expressionless mask from Mamachi ( top: fig. 17). In fact the Mamachi mask found in association with a burial pit may have functioned as a death mask. Some have traces of holes, through which cords probably passed to hold the mask in place. Individual clay noses, mouths and ears have also been found - at Hatten ( cat. 62), Koda and Takaragamine - and may have been attached to masks made of other materials, perhaps wood or skin. Clay masks were made in larger or smaller forms: the larger examples would have covered the whole face while the smaller ones were perhaps worn on the forehead, or simply served as amulets. Changes of style seemingly accompanied a change of function, as masks that had once been worn in rituals now became ritual funerary ornaments. Sannai Maruyama and Shakado: sites of shattered deities In the early 1990s, archaeologists working on the site of the new Aomori prefectural baseball stadium uncovered the largest Jomon settlement known to date, at Sannai Maruyama. Although the location was known for its ancient relics since the Edo period, nobody predicted that this place would produce the largest number of dogufrom any single Jomon settlement complex yet discovered. The majority of doguhave been found in locations that have produced just a small number of ceramic figures, although the sites at Sannai Maruyama in Aomori and Shakadoin Yamanashi prefecture, both dating to the Early and Middle Jomon, have revealed them in larger numbers. Ceramic figures were produced, used and deposited in great quantities at these two settlement complexes: some 1,100