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Encountering dogu33 as at Hinohama in Hokkaido. What makes the Hinohama example all the more intriguing is that wild boar are not native to the island of Hokkaido, and must have been transported across the Tsugaru Straits in dug- out canoes. At the Tajiri shell midden in Miyagi prefecture, the remains of two young wild boar were carefully buried, leading some investigators to suggest that they had died while being raised and were given appropriately respectful burials. From the same site the remains of 187 dogs were also discovered. Dogs had been important to foragers from the beginning of the Jomon period, as shown by the careful burial of one at the Kamikuroiwa rock shelter, and it was probably mainly dogs that were domesticated, unlike any other animals in the Jomon bestiary. However, there are relatively few examples of dog- shaped dogu. A small assemblage of figures from Fujioka Jinja in Tochigi prefecture, however, evokes a scene in which the larger dog- shaped doguappears to be marshalling a small cohort of three juvenile wild boar. Dogu vessels Most Jomon pottery is decorated with abstract designs, but some bear motifs of human- inspired forms, while others show animals, trees and even scenes of hunting. Sometimes these motifs are applied to the vessels' surface or very often they are incorporated into handles and other projections ( figs 14 and 16), looming out of the rims of the pottery vessels, or giving human or animal form to the mouth of the pot itself. Douglass Bailey suggests that the Chobonaino dogu needs to be understood in the context of a social philosophy of pouring ( see p. 67): the doguvessels suggest that special meanings, associated with human and animal forms, were given to the contents of the vessels they adorn. Whatever their uses, these doguvessels show that special powers were not restricted to the doguthemselves. Fig. 16 Pottery vessels with handles and projections in the form of wild boar ( Nakanoya Matsubara, Gunma prefecture, Early Jomon). Wild boar may have played a special role in the Jomon world, perhaps being raised as livestock. Jomon potters chose to represent them in their creations more often than other animals that were also important in the Jomon diet, such as deer.

36 Turning off shortly before the ShakadoService Area on the Central Expressway from Tokyo to Nagoya, one drives along a series of ever- narrowing roads through some of the best wine- producing areas of Japan. Nestled among the picturesque vineyards is the ShakadoMuseum of Jomon Culture, overlooking the place where in 1980 and 1981 another complex of Jomon settlements, thought to present a series of four neighbouring hamlets, was excavated prior to the construction of the motorway services. These four hamlets, named Tsukanoshita A and B, Sankojindaira and Noronohara, cover over five hectares. The earliest occupation on the fan- shaped terrace came at the end of the Initial Jomon, and there was some limited occupation, including a small number of buildings, during the Early Jomon. But the main period of activity at Shakadowas in the Middle Jomon. As at Sannai Maruyama, different phases of occupation were recognized, and in addition to over 200 pit houses, earthen pits, probably used for burial, and extensive dump areas were found. Unlike Sannai Maruyama, however, there were no traces of raised- floor buildings, large long- houses, or a massive post- built structure. In addition to everyday tools, including thousands of chipped axes, arrowheads, querns for grinding and scrapers and pointed drills for processing animal skins, all fashioned from stone, and small numbers of fishing tools, such as sinkers and floats for nets, a relatively large number of ceramic objects were found. Some would seem to indicate that belief systems played an important role in the lives of the inhabitants. Elaborate rim pieces from pottery vessels were modelled after human and animal heads, fragments of flanged and perforated vessels were perhaps used in the preparation of alcoholic beverages or as drums ( or both), and ceramic pedestals may have been used for special offerings. Miniature pottery vessels, most just a few centimetres high, were also discovered, together with a handful of animal figurines, large quantities of round clay discs that may have been used in games or perhaps for some form of toilet function, a ceramic lamp, and small numbers of clay flutes, rattles and balls. This assemblage of ritualistic objects was completed by twenty- eight polished stone bars from the Sankojindaira hamlet, dating to the end of the Middle Jomon, and a small number of standing stones from inside the late Middle Jomon houses. 25It is within one of the later phases of the Middle Jomon, shortly before the demise of these large settlements complexes, that we see the main development and use of standing stones and polished stone bars in houses ( see fig. 42, p. 57). This period of high activity is in keeping with what Habu Junko and Ogasawara Masayuki reported from Sannai Maruyama, 26where dogufigurines were made and used throughout its occupation but in especially large numbers just before it was abandoned. Tanabatake and Nakappara: sites of buried bodies Around 4,000 years ago, in the centre of a Jomon village on the south- western slopes of the Yatsugatake volcanic massif in central Honshu, a group of Jomon foragers placed a complete ceramic figure on its side in a pit and gently covered it with earth ( cat. 3). Some 500 years later, a short distance to the south- west, another, possibly smaller group of Jomon villagers buried another ceramic figure in the ground, this time possibly wrapped in the arms of a deceased member of the village ( fig. 22). Close by, a finely crafted ceramic dish was placed. These two acts of deposition, at the sites of Tanabatake and Nakappara respectively,