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us about ornaments considered suitable for daytime as opposed to evening wear; it demonstrates wealth and what people could afford, but not necessarily class. In artistic circles women wore rough silver pieces and unpolished stones to blur differences in levels of wealth. While it is relatively simple to establish a time- frame for the introduction of a model or type of jewel, it is far harder to pin-point its demise. As well as the exchange and sale of second- hand items, catalogues and advertisements dating from the very end of the nineteenth century include types that were introduced at the beginning of Queen Victoria's reign. The steady growth of tourism kept in production local and traditional jewellery, made from indigenous materials and employing a repertoire of locally signif-icant imagery, largely unchanged, for decades. The geographical focus of the book is on Western Europe and America, but it touches on the rest of the world where relevant: America, which played no international role in this field before 1876, is treated in its relation to European jewellery. We make no claim that this is a survey of American jewellery. While including other European countries in some depth, especially France, Germany and Italy, the core of the book is about what jewellery meant in Britain, as seen from a British viewpoint, with Queen Victoria at its heart. The chronological scope covers the period from 1830 to 1901, the girlhood of Queen Victoria to her death, but without including the stylistic revolutions of Art Nouveau or Arts and Crafts, for which the term ' Victorian' is inappropriate. One theme emerging from the wider European perspective, perhaps not previously emphasized in surveys of nineteenth-century jewellery, is the role it played in the promotion of national identity. The myriad strands of nationalism in different countries are here brought together and compared and contrasted. Within Britain, we discovered, Queen Victoria acted as arbiter of many of these fashions to a much greater extent than we had suspected. What she wore influenced what her subjects wore, and this very fact is an aspect of British nationalism. Pride in being British was reflected in how she chose to define Britishness. The strongly waged royal campaign for British manufactures was one aspect of this nationalism, to the extent that widely reported royal trousseaux had to be entirely British- made. Naturally this led to a certain national one- upmanship, pointedly played out by Queen Victoria and Empress Eugénie but fostered just as much by the interna-tional exhibitions. From the initial idea of assembling the whole world under one roof, they became celebrations of national land-marks, such as the Philadelphia centenary in 1876 and Paris in 1889. We have grouped these various themes in the following order. In recognition of the overriding influence of the royal family on taste in jewellery, we begin with the life of Queen Victoria as seen through her jewellery. Almost every aspect of jewellery discussed in subsequent sections is to be found here, and so Chapter 1 pro-vides both an introduction to and a context for the entire book. 8 examination of the Registered Designs for jewellery was beyond the scope of the present study, but it would be a rewarding sub-ject for the future. We have looked briefly at the way in which jewellers exploited the new means of distribution offered by the transport revolution and a universal postal system. The two London-based jewellery trade journals launched in the 1870s meant that buyers around the country saw illustrations of new lines before the manufacturers' travellers reached them with samples. Samples could also be sent by post within days: the consequent mail order business was in full swing by the 1870s in Europe and America. The search for novelty in design may have been in part a conse-quence of the depression in the trade which lasted from 1873 to the end of the century. Quite apart from new items, there was a thriving market in second- hand jewellery; periodicals such as Exchange and Mart( 1868- 71) and its successor Bazaar, Exchange and Mart( 1871- 1900), as well as exchange columns in women's magazines, reveal the tastes and desires of those who left no diaries or letters. Moreover, in an age when women did not have control of their own money, swapping jewellery was a cost- free way of keeping in fashion and having control over at least some aspects of their life. Shopping for jewellery is a theme that recurs throughout the book. We had initially wished to devote a section to it but real-ized it was too big a subject. Nonetheless, we have touched on the range of establishments where jewellery was sold, to indicate that in London alone, beyond Bond Street and the West End at the top end, there were retail jewellers in the manufacturing dis-tricts of Holborn and Clerkenwell, and completely different businesses, gift shops in effect, such as the Baker Street Bazaar, or Rimmel's Emporium in the Strand, where jewellery could be bought amongst a host of other accessories and domestic items. Perma-nent indoor bazaars ( as distinct from temporary charity bazaars) contained individual stalls rented by the week and mostly run by women. While all these outlets serve to emphasize the increasing range of products, we discovered little, beyond the obvious grand diamond pieces, that indicated clear divisions of class in the type of jewellery worn or where it was purchased. The upper echelons of society had their own jeweller, usually one of the big Bond Street firms, and would stick with him for life; but it cannot be said that they never went into the emporia for presents. Shopping in the West End was intimidating, since no prices were marked on the goods. The rise of the new department stores with jewellery depart-ments, like Howell & James or Whiteley's, who maintained fixed prices on everything, encouraged a wider public. To this end, some firms, Streeter for instance, gave prices in their advertisements in The Times. Brogden made a point of the fact that his jewellery was all made on the premises in Covent Garden ( this was an excep-tion among West End firms), enabling him to offer manufacturers' prices. Grappling with issues of class is difficult, but we have tried to show that cheapness is not in itself a class indicator. Cost tells JEWELLERY IN THE AGE OF QUEEN VICTORIA

Chapters 2- 4 deal with the symbolic weight that jewellery was expected to carry, the constant tension between status and fash-ion, the relationship of jewellery to dress, and the different kinds of messages that jewellery conveyed. Following these, Chapter 5 is devoted to the Victorian obsession with novelty, itself a kind of message, and the direct impact on jewellery of topical events world-wide, popular entertainment, and developments in the scientific and natural world. This leads into Chapter 6, which explores the place of jewellery at the international exhibitions and the role of these world fairs in providing a conduit for trade. The resulting familiarity with the arts of the Islamic world, India, China and Japan, and with previously unregarded traditional and regional jewellery from Continental Europe ( described as ' peasant' jewell-ery by the Victorians), had a tremendous impact both on the design of jewellery and on the wearing of imported ornaments. Exhibitions played a key role in establishing a sense of national pride, and Chapters 7 and 8 deal with the cultures of the past and the ways in which styles of former ages were appropriated by the European countries struggling to create a national identity. The so- called ' revivalist' tradition is set in its political and historical context, to demonstrate that it is not always a matter of looking backwards for inspiration, but rather a desire to harness the glory of the past to make a point about the present. A crucial aspect of the understanding of national styles was the growth of tourism, and this forms the subject of Chapter 10, with an account of shop-ping for souvenirs at home and abroad. Italy is a special case because of its long- standing hold on visitors from northern Europe and America, and a remarkable amount of information survives about what and how people bought, not least about Italy's flourishing cameo industry. Cameos form the subject of Chapter 9, which examines their sources, both antique and contemporary, to show how the cameo became perhaps the quintessential Victorian jewel. A book of this scale has required input from both authors to every section. Nonetheless, there are broad divisions of respon-sibility. Charlotte Gere has written the first four chapters, on Queen Victoria, the role of jewellery, jewellery and dress, and the language of jewellery. She has also written the final two chapters, on Victorian cameos and souvenirs of travel. Judy Rudoe has writ-ten the chapters on the cult of novelty, on jewellery at the international exhibitions, links with the East and the role of peasant and regional jewellery, on nationalism and historical styles ( except the section on historical revival jewellery in England which was written by Charlotte Gere), and on archaeological discoveries. We owe an incalculable debt to our precursors, without whom this volume could not have been attempted. The first history of nineteenth- century jewellery was in many ways the most remark-able: a three- volume illustrated survey of jewellery in France, La Bijouterie française au XIXe siècle, published in 1906- 8 by Henri Vever, himself a distinguished jeweller who was largely describing his contemporaries, making it an incomparable first- hand account. There has been nothing else like it for any other country and it has helped to give the whole subject a rather French slant, not unreasonably since France was seen as a leader in the field through-out the nineteenth century. The fate of jewellery from other countries has suffered in consequence. Little followed until 1951 when Margaret Flower published Victorian Jewellery: coinciding with the centenary of the 1851 Great Exhibition, this was the first book written from a British perspective and it is remarkable for the accu-racy of its judgement and conclusions. But the view was still widely held that it was impossible to attribute English jewellery, and that, beyond a very few firms, the makers could not be named. Joan Evans's History of Jewellery 1100- 1870( 1953) gave scant attention to the nineteenth century; in the preface to the second edition of 1970, however, Evans wrote, ' Since this book came out, interest in nineteenth- century jewellery has rapidly increased . . . and I decided to add to this new edition examples of jewellery designed by Pugin and Castellani, as well as a selection of pieces from less well- known hands.' The revision was largely carried out by Ronald Lightbown. In 1971 the scholar and collector Dora Jane Janson organized an exhibition entitled From Slave to Sirenat Duke Uni-versity, North Carolina, and the accompanying catalogue was a revelation of the interpretations that could be applied to nine-teenth- century jewellery. Janson was a great friend of Shirley Bury ( eventually Keeper of the Victoria and Albert Museum's metalwork collection), who was to produce her major book twenty years later ( see below), and they influenced one another enormously. Janson's catalogue was followed by Charlotte Gere's Victorian Jewellery Design ( 1972) and European and American Jewellery 1830- 1914( 1975). It was Victorian Jewellery Designthat inspired the collector Anne Hull Grundy to collect documentary Victorian pieces, selling much of her diamond jewellery to do so. We first collaborated on the Hull Grundy Gift to the British Museum in 1978, initially on the display of the gift and then on the two- volume catalogue published in 1984. Publication of a scholarly catalogue of the entire gift of some 1,200 pieces was a condition of its acceptance, and it broadened the subject in a way that had not been possible before; it was the first collection cata-logue devoted to nineteenth- century jewellery. The present book emerges from that collaboration. When we ( and our co- authors, Hugh Tait and Timothy Wilson) compiled the catalogue, however, there was still very little literature on nineteenth- century jewellery. The collections that Anne and John Hull Grundy put together and donated to the British Museum and to other museums across the UK have provided a phenomenal study collection which we have made a point of exploiting to demonstrate the depth of Mrs Hull Grundy's collecting. By her own admission, Anne Hull Grundy bought the unwearable and wore it, taking an interest in archae-ological- style jewellery long before it became more widely collected. She also bought outstanding examples of under- appreciated cat-egories such as ivory carving and three- colour chased gold work. PREFACE9