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Chapters 2- 4 deal with the symbolic weight that jewellery was expected to carry, the constant tension between status and fash-ion, the relationship of jewellery to dress, and the different kinds of messages that jewellery conveyed. Following these, Chapter 5 is devoted to the Victorian obsession with novelty, itself a kind of message, and the direct impact on jewellery of topical events world-wide, popular entertainment, and developments in the scientific and natural world. This leads into Chapter 6, which explores the place of jewellery at the international exhibitions and the role of these world fairs in providing a conduit for trade. The resulting familiarity with the arts of the Islamic world, India, China and Japan, and with previously unregarded traditional and regional jewellery from Continental Europe ( described as ' peasant' jewell-ery by the Victorians), had a tremendous impact both on the design of jewellery and on the wearing of imported ornaments. Exhibitions played a key role in establishing a sense of national pride, and Chapters 7 and 8 deal with the cultures of the past and the ways in which styles of former ages were appropriated by the European countries struggling to create a national identity. The so- called ' revivalist' tradition is set in its political and historical context, to demonstrate that it is not always a matter of looking backwards for inspiration, but rather a desire to harness the glory of the past to make a point about the present. A crucial aspect of the understanding of national styles was the growth of tourism, and this forms the subject of Chapter 10, with an account of shop-ping for souvenirs at home and abroad. Italy is a special case because of its long- standing hold on visitors from northern Europe and America, and a remarkable amount of information survives about what and how people bought, not least about Italy's flourishing cameo industry. Cameos form the subject of Chapter 9, which examines their sources, both antique and contemporary, to show how the cameo became perhaps the quintessential Victorian jewel. A book of this scale has required input from both authors to every section. Nonetheless, there are broad divisions of respon-sibility. Charlotte Gere has written the first four chapters, on Queen Victoria, the role of jewellery, jewellery and dress, and the language of jewellery. She has also written the final two chapters, on Victorian cameos and souvenirs of travel. Judy Rudoe has writ-ten the chapters on the cult of novelty, on jewellery at the international exhibitions, links with the East and the role of peasant and regional jewellery, on nationalism and historical styles ( except the section on historical revival jewellery in England which was written by Charlotte Gere), and on archaeological discoveries. We owe an incalculable debt to our precursors, without whom this volume could not have been attempted. The first history of nineteenth- century jewellery was in many ways the most remark-able: a three- volume illustrated survey of jewellery in France, La Bijouterie française au XIXe siècle, published in 1906- 8 by Henri Vever, himself a distinguished jeweller who was largely describing his contemporaries, making it an incomparable first- hand account. There has been nothing else like it for any other country and it has helped to give the whole subject a rather French slant, not unreasonably since France was seen as a leader in the field through-out the nineteenth century. The fate of jewellery from other countries has suffered in consequence. Little followed until 1951 when Margaret Flower published Victorian Jewellery: coinciding with the centenary of the 1851 Great Exhibition, this was the first book written from a British perspective and it is remarkable for the accu-racy of its judgement and conclusions. But the view was still widely held that it was impossible to attribute English jewellery, and that, beyond a very few firms, the makers could not be named. Joan Evans's History of Jewellery 1100- 1870( 1953) gave scant attention to the nineteenth century; in the preface to the second edition of 1970, however, Evans wrote, ' Since this book came out, interest in nineteenth- century jewellery has rapidly increased . . . and I decided to add to this new edition examples of jewellery designed by Pugin and Castellani, as well as a selection of pieces from less well- known hands.' The revision was largely carried out by Ronald Lightbown. In 1971 the scholar and collector Dora Jane Janson organized an exhibition entitled From Slave to Sirenat Duke Uni-versity, North Carolina, and the accompanying catalogue was a revelation of the interpretations that could be applied to nine-teenth- century jewellery. Janson was a great friend of Shirley Bury ( eventually Keeper of the Victoria and Albert Museum's metalwork collection), who was to produce her major book twenty years later ( see below), and they influenced one another enormously. Janson's catalogue was followed by Charlotte Gere's Victorian Jewellery Design ( 1972) and European and American Jewellery 1830- 1914( 1975). It was Victorian Jewellery Designthat inspired the collector Anne Hull Grundy to collect documentary Victorian pieces, selling much of her diamond jewellery to do so. We first collaborated on the Hull Grundy Gift to the British Museum in 1978, initially on the display of the gift and then on the two- volume catalogue published in 1984. Publication of a scholarly catalogue of the entire gift of some 1,200 pieces was a condition of its acceptance, and it broadened the subject in a way that had not been possible before; it was the first collection cata-logue devoted to nineteenth- century jewellery. The present book emerges from that collaboration. When we ( and our co- authors, Hugh Tait and Timothy Wilson) compiled the catalogue, however, there was still very little literature on nineteenth- century jewellery. The collections that Anne and John Hull Grundy put together and donated to the British Museum and to other museums across the UK have provided a phenomenal study collection which we have made a point of exploiting to demonstrate the depth of Mrs Hull Grundy's collecting. By her own admission, Anne Hull Grundy bought the unwearable and wore it, taking an interest in archae-ological- style jewellery long before it became more widely collected. She also bought outstanding examples of under- appreciated cat-egories such as ivory carving and three- colour chased gold work. PREFACE9

The wide distribution of so much material related to Victorian cul-ture did much to change people's perceptions of Victorian jewellery and to inspire the publications that have informed the present book. A major contribution, Shirley Bury's massive two- volume survey Jewellery 1789- 1910: The International Era ( 1991), is the starting point for any study of the subject. It covers a much larger time span than the present work in enormous detail; we have treated many of the same topics but from a different perspective. She investigated in detail the internal workings of the trade as it responded to fashion and technological developments. Here we aim to track the progress of Victorian jewellery through external events, cultural, socio- economic and historical, starting from out-side stimuli rather than from the jewels themselves. Invaluable monographs on specialist subjects include Geoffrey Munn's pioneering account of Castellani and Giuliano ( 1983); Marie- Noël de Gary's exhibition catalogue on the Fouquet dyn-asty ( 1983), to which Charlotte Gere contributed; Martha Gandy Fales's Jewelry in America 1600- 1900( 1995); Brigitte Marquardt's two- part history of jewellery in the German- speaking countries ( 1983 and 1998); and Katherine Purcell's study of Falize ( 1999). Purcell also translated Vever's comprehensive survey into English, with many additional images. Literary criticism opened up new avenues of research: the late Professor Kurt Tetzeli's 1984 study of jewellery in Victorian fiction has been a major inspiration. Most recently, James David Draper's Metropolitan Museum Bulletin devoted to cameos ( 2008) has established beyond doubt the impor-tance of nineteenth- century cameos, and his long association with CharlotteGere inspired her interest in the subject. Without these scholars, we could not have functioned. Many, such as Geoffrey Munn and John Culme, have been collaborators as well as long-standing friends. Among many other scholars at museums and other institu-tions throughout the UK and abroad we owe an enormous debt to our colleagues at the Victoria and Albert Museum and the Royal Collection in London. At the V& A, our first tribute must be to the late Clive Wainwright, who confirmed our sense that the nine-teenth century was worthy of serious study. Richard Edgcumbe has given constant encouragement and support throughout the project, offering us the opportunity of examining the jewellery collection prior to its redisplay: to discuss it with him and his col-laborators on the new gallery was a revelation. Jane Perry encouraged us to include the section on ' peasant' jewellery, while Beatriz Chadour has been a fount of information over decades, from her time in Cologne and Hanau to the present. Lucy Johnston and Catherine Howell showed us the extraordinary Animal Products collection, while Nick Barnard's knowledge of Indian jewellery and his willingness to discuss the V& A's enormous collection have been invaluable. Revinder Chahal helped with a large and complicated request for photogaphs. At the Royal Collection, we have benefited from Kathryn Jones's research on Queen Victoria's jewellery and the discovery of many hitherto unpublished pieces for the exhibition Victoria and Albert: Art and Loveat the Queen's Gallery in 2010 and we have shared as much information as pos-sible. In addition Stephen Patterson, Jonathan Marsden, Anna Reynolds and Jane Roberts have been unfailingly helpful in tracing and providing information about items owned by Queen Victoria. At the Museum of London, we are indebted to Beatrice Behlen, and also to Edwina Ehrmann and Tessa Murdoch ( both now at the V& A), who opened up the museum's remarkable collection, much of it from Queen Mary, for Charlotte Gere's work on the exhibition Treasures and Trinketsin 1991, and subsequently for a report on the potential uses of the collection. The curators of Hull Grundy Gifts across the UK have helped us, often over decades: Julia Poole at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge; Rosemary Watt at Glasgow Museums; Glennys Wild at Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery; Elizabeth McCrum and Elise Taylor at the Ulster Museum, Belfast; Victoria Partridge ( and formerly Caroline Bacon) at the Cecil Higgins Art Gallery, Bedford; Francesca Vanke ( and formerly Robin Emmerson) at Norwich Castle Museum; Veronica Tonge at Maidstone Museum; Laura Nugent at Doncaster. In addi-tion we wish to thank George Dalgleish and Elizabeth Goring at the National Museums of Scotland, and Rosalind Marshall for-merly at the Scottish National Portrait Gallery in Edinburgh; Pamela Robertson at the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow; Howard Coutts at the Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle; Alex Ward and the late Mairead Dunlevy at the National Museum in Dublin; Hannah Obee at Chatsworth; Antonio Mazzotta at the National Gallery; Jeremy Warren at the Wallace Collection; David Beasley at the Goldsmiths' Company; Patrick Streeter, Nigel Israel and Laura Knowles- Cutler. We are indebted to Henrietta McCall for her insights into the Assyrian revival. We have been fortunate in the excellent resources available in London, in the National Portrait Gallery Archive, the British Library, the National Art Library, and the London Library, whose subscription to The TimesDigital Archive proved invaluable. Our thanks go to many individuals abroad: in Paris, to Evelyne Possémé at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, who spent an entire week allowing Judy Rudoe to work through the jewellery from the Vever collection with her in 1979; to Marc Bascou at the Musée d'Orsay and now at the Louvre; and to the archivists at Boucheron ( Michel Tonnelot), Mellerio ( Anne Imbert) and Cartier ( Betty Jais). In Rome, the late Gabriella Bordenache Battaglia at the Museo di Villa Giulia showed Judy Rudoe a large part of the Castellani col-lection, not then on display, in the 1980s; subsequently Ida Caruso and the Director, Francesca Boitani, have supported her research, while Maria Grazia Branchetti gave much help with the Castellani archive at the Archivio di Stato, and Arnold Nesselrath of the Vatican Museums opened countless sealed doors in Rome. Thanks go also to Kirsten Piacenti at the Museo degli Argenti and subse-quently at the Museo Stibbert, and Caterina del Vivo at the Archivio 10JEWELLERY IN THE AGE OF QUEEN VICTORIA