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The wide distribution of so much material related to Victorian cul-ture did much to change people's perceptions of Victorian jewellery and to inspire the publications that have informed the present book. A major contribution, Shirley Bury's massive two- volume survey Jewellery 1789- 1910: The International Era ( 1991), is the starting point for any study of the subject. It covers a much larger time span than the present work in enormous detail; we have treated many of the same topics but from a different perspective. She investigated in detail the internal workings of the trade as it responded to fashion and technological developments. Here we aim to track the progress of Victorian jewellery through external events, cultural, socio- economic and historical, starting from out-side stimuli rather than from the jewels themselves. Invaluable monographs on specialist subjects include Geoffrey Munn's pioneering account of Castellani and Giuliano ( 1983); Marie- Noël de Gary's exhibition catalogue on the Fouquet dyn-asty ( 1983), to which Charlotte Gere contributed; Martha Gandy Fales's Jewelry in America 1600- 1900( 1995); Brigitte Marquardt's two- part history of jewellery in the German- speaking countries ( 1983 and 1998); and Katherine Purcell's study of Falize ( 1999). Purcell also translated Vever's comprehensive survey into English, with many additional images. Literary criticism opened up new avenues of research: the late Professor Kurt Tetzeli's 1984 study of jewellery in Victorian fiction has been a major inspiration. Most recently, James David Draper's Metropolitan Museum Bulletin devoted to cameos ( 2008) has established beyond doubt the impor-tance of nineteenth- century cameos, and his long association with CharlotteGere inspired her interest in the subject. Without these scholars, we could not have functioned. Many, such as Geoffrey Munn and John Culme, have been collaborators as well as long-standing friends. Among many other scholars at museums and other institu-tions throughout the UK and abroad we owe an enormous debt to our colleagues at the Victoria and Albert Museum and the Royal Collection in London. At the V& A, our first tribute must be to the late Clive Wainwright, who confirmed our sense that the nine-teenth century was worthy of serious study. Richard Edgcumbe has given constant encouragement and support throughout the project, offering us the opportunity of examining the jewellery collection prior to its redisplay: to discuss it with him and his col-laborators on the new gallery was a revelation. Jane Perry encouraged us to include the section on ' peasant' jewellery, while Beatriz Chadour has been a fount of information over decades, from her time in Cologne and Hanau to the present. Lucy Johnston and Catherine Howell showed us the extraordinary Animal Products collection, while Nick Barnard's knowledge of Indian jewellery and his willingness to discuss the V& A's enormous collection have been invaluable. Revinder Chahal helped with a large and complicated request for photogaphs. At the Royal Collection, we have benefited from Kathryn Jones's research on Queen Victoria's jewellery and the discovery of many hitherto unpublished pieces for the exhibition Victoria and Albert: Art and Loveat the Queen's Gallery in 2010 and we have shared as much information as pos-sible. In addition Stephen Patterson, Jonathan Marsden, Anna Reynolds and Jane Roberts have been unfailingly helpful in tracing and providing information about items owned by Queen Victoria. At the Museum of London, we are indebted to Beatrice Behlen, and also to Edwina Ehrmann and Tessa Murdoch ( both now at the V& A), who opened up the museum's remarkable collection, much of it from Queen Mary, for Charlotte Gere's work on the exhibition Treasures and Trinketsin 1991, and subsequently for a report on the potential uses of the collection. The curators of Hull Grundy Gifts across the UK have helped us, often over decades: Julia Poole at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge; Rosemary Watt at Glasgow Museums; Glennys Wild at Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery; Elizabeth McCrum and Elise Taylor at the Ulster Museum, Belfast; Victoria Partridge ( and formerly Caroline Bacon) at the Cecil Higgins Art Gallery, Bedford; Francesca Vanke ( and formerly Robin Emmerson) at Norwich Castle Museum; Veronica Tonge at Maidstone Museum; Laura Nugent at Doncaster. In addi-tion we wish to thank George Dalgleish and Elizabeth Goring at the National Museums of Scotland, and Rosalind Marshall for-merly at the Scottish National Portrait Gallery in Edinburgh; Pamela Robertson at the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow; Howard Coutts at the Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle; Alex Ward and the late Mairead Dunlevy at the National Museum in Dublin; Hannah Obee at Chatsworth; Antonio Mazzotta at the National Gallery; Jeremy Warren at the Wallace Collection; David Beasley at the Goldsmiths' Company; Patrick Streeter, Nigel Israel and Laura Knowles- Cutler. We are indebted to Henrietta McCall for her insights into the Assyrian revival. We have been fortunate in the excellent resources available in London, in the National Portrait Gallery Archive, the British Library, the National Art Library, and the London Library, whose subscription to The TimesDigital Archive proved invaluable. Our thanks go to many individuals abroad: in Paris, to Evelyne Possémé at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, who spent an entire week allowing Judy Rudoe to work through the jewellery from the Vever collection with her in 1979; to Marc Bascou at the Musée d'Orsay and now at the Louvre; and to the archivists at Boucheron ( Michel Tonnelot), Mellerio ( Anne Imbert) and Cartier ( Betty Jais). In Rome, the late Gabriella Bordenache Battaglia at the Museo di Villa Giulia showed Judy Rudoe a large part of the Castellani col-lection, not then on display, in the 1980s; subsequently Ida Caruso and the Director, Francesca Boitani, have supported her research, while Maria Grazia Branchetti gave much help with the Castellani archive at the Archivio di Stato, and Arnold Nesselrath of the Vatican Museums opened countless sealed doors in Rome. Thanks go also to Kirsten Piacenti at the Museo degli Argenti and subse-quently at the Museo Stibbert, and Caterina del Vivo at the Archivio 10JEWELLERY IN THE AGE OF QUEEN VICTORIA

Storico del Gabinetto Vieusseux, in Florence. We wish to acknowl-edge, too, the late Martha McCrory of Baltimore, who was studying the Medici archives in Florence when we first met her in the late 1970s and who remained a constant source of information on Italian sources and enthusiasm for the nineteenth century. In Germany, the collections of jewellery are so numerous that space prevents us from listing all those who have shown us items in their care or responded to our enquiries, but we would like particularly to thank Rüdiger Joppien of the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe in Hamburg; Michael Koch, who organized the landmark exhibi-tion Pariser Schmuck vom zweiten Kaiserreich zur Belle Epoqueat the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich, in 1989; Barbara Mundt, former Director of the Kunstgewerbemuseum Berlin, whose ground-breaking 1973 Historismusexhibition catalogue and subsequent book have been a constant guide; Fritz Falk, former Director of the Schmuckmuseum, Pforzheim, who opened doors to factory archives for Judy Rudoe, and his successor CornelieHolzach. In Austria, we were helped by Elisabeth Schmuttermeier at the Museum für angewandte Kunst in Vienna, and in Sweden by Eva Helena Cassel- Phil. In America, we are indebted to James Draper, the late Clare Le Corbeiller and Catherine Jenkins at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; to David Kiehl ( formerly of the Metro-politan Museum); to Marybeth de Filipis at the New- York Historical Society, Deborah Waters at the Museum of the City of New York, and Yvonne Markowitz at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; to Annamarie Sandecki and her colleagues in the archive at Tiffany & Co. for innumerable kindnesses, and to John Loring, former Design Director; to the late Samuel Beizer, Director of the Jewelry Department at the Fashion Institute of Technology, New York; to Ralph Esmerian and the late Penny Proddow; to David A. Taylor of the Library of Congress in Washington for supplying numerous American references; to Ruth and the late Joseph Sataloff of Philadel-phia for making their remarkable collection available to Judy Rudoe, and inviting her to speak at one of their ' jewelry camps', later run by Joyce Jonas, which introduced her to the wealth of interest in jewellery in America; to Elise Karlin, editor of Adornment, and to Michelle Hargrave. Others who have helped with specific queries, both in the UK and abroad, are acknowledged in the notes . The support of the trade has been invaluable. We owe a huge debt to Geoffrey Munn, Katherine Purcell and Kieran McCarthy at Wartski for constantly showing us items and for their unstint-ing help in providing photographs; to David Callaghan, former Director of Hancocks, and his late colleague, Malcolm Carr ( whose pioneering account of the Saulinis appeared in 1975); to Madeleine Popper, and to the late Raizel Halpin of Ares Rare in New York, who sold many pieces to Mrs Hull Grundy. A book of this kind cannot be written without financial assis-tance and the contributions of three bodies and individuals have been critical. First, the award of a six- month Research Fellowship from the Leverhulme Trust allowed Judy Rudoe's place at the British Museum to be filled so that she could work full- time on it. We thank, too, the three referees who gave their support: Jonathan Marsden, Richard Edgcumbe and Marcia Pointon. During that time, long- standing friends and supporters of the British Museum, who also happen to be passionate about jewellery, learnt about the project and immediately offered to extend her time away by paying for her replacement to stay on for an extra two months. They wish to remain anonymous but are no less deserving of our gratitude. Lastly, and by far the largest contribution financially, was an exceedingly generous grant towards the production costs of the book from The Isaacson- Draper Foundation of New York. Publishing well- produced books has become increasingly expen-sive; this enabled us to use the illustrations we needed rather than those we could afford, and the speed with which the Foundation's trustees responded to our tentative request meant that we could concentrate on the research and writing instead of fund- raising. At the British Museum we wish to thank the Keeper of the Department of Prehistory and Europe, Leslie Webster, for her ini-tial support of the Leverhulme application, and her successor, Jonathan Williams, for generously allowing Judy Rudoe to return part- time until the text was handed over to the British Museum Press. Her replacement, Natasha Awais- Dean, deserves our thanks, as do other colleagues who undertook extra duties in her absence. Many excellent new photographs were taken by the Museum's chief photographer, John Williams. Many items were specially cleaned for this by Rachel Berridge, Maickel van Bellegem and oth-ers from the metals conservation section. Katerina Pantelides and Anna Lisa Jensen worked as volunteers to help with assembling images and text corrections, Amy Dale helped prepare the index and Christopher Coles scanned images with remarkable speed. At the British Museum Press, the book has been expertly han-dled by Teresa Francis, who has been unfailingly supportive and inspiring, while Ray Watkins's sensitive design has enhanced our text in a way that we never imagined possible. The copy- editing was undertaken by Elisabeth Ingles, the proof- reading by Bev Zimmern, and production by Charlotte Cade. Axelle Russo helped us obtain the 500 images from nearly seventy different institu-tions. We are especially grateful to those who waived or reduced their reproduction fees. Lastly, we owe much to our anonymous readers, every one of whose suggestions we adopted, and to those who kindly took thetrouble to read parts of our text at draft stage: Jonathan Marsden, Jane Perry, Catherine Howell, Nick Barnard, Rosemary Watt, George Dalgleish, Alex Ward, Raghnall O' Floinn, Ben Roberts, Paul Collins, Richard Parkinson, Timothy Clark, Marc Bascou, Rüdiger Joppien, James Draper and Annamarie Sandecki. Their comments, along with those of Richard Edgcumbe and Antony Griffiths, have saved us from countless errors and made this a much better book. Charlotte Gere and Judy Rudoe PREFACE11