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Storico del Gabinetto Vieusseux, in Florence. We wish to acknowl-edge, too, the late Martha McCrory of Baltimore, who was studying the Medici archives in Florence when we first met her in the late 1970s and who remained a constant source of information on Italian sources and enthusiasm for the nineteenth century. In Germany, the collections of jewellery are so numerous that space prevents us from listing all those who have shown us items in their care or responded to our enquiries, but we would like particularly to thank Rüdiger Joppien of the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe in Hamburg; Michael Koch, who organized the landmark exhibi-tion Pariser Schmuck vom zweiten Kaiserreich zur Belle Epoqueat the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich, in 1989; Barbara Mundt, former Director of the Kunstgewerbemuseum Berlin, whose ground-breaking 1973 Historismusexhibition catalogue and subsequent book have been a constant guide; Fritz Falk, former Director of the Schmuckmuseum, Pforzheim, who opened doors to factory archives for Judy Rudoe, and his successor CornelieHolzach. In Austria, we were helped by Elisabeth Schmuttermeier at the Museum für angewandte Kunst in Vienna, and in Sweden by Eva Helena Cassel- Phil. In America, we are indebted to James Draper, the late Clare Le Corbeiller and Catherine Jenkins at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; to David Kiehl ( formerly of the Metro-politan Museum); to Marybeth de Filipis at the New- York Historical Society, Deborah Waters at the Museum of the City of New York, and Yvonne Markowitz at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; to Annamarie Sandecki and her colleagues in the archive at Tiffany & Co. for innumerable kindnesses, and to John Loring, former Design Director; to the late Samuel Beizer, Director of the Jewelry Department at the Fashion Institute of Technology, New York; to Ralph Esmerian and the late Penny Proddow; to David A. Taylor of the Library of Congress in Washington for supplying numerous American references; to Ruth and the late Joseph Sataloff of Philadel-phia for making their remarkable collection available to Judy Rudoe, and inviting her to speak at one of their ' jewelry camps', later run by Joyce Jonas, which introduced her to the wealth of interest in jewellery in America; to Elise Karlin, editor of Adornment, and to Michelle Hargrave. Others who have helped with specific queries, both in the UK and abroad, are acknowledged in the notes . The support of the trade has been invaluable. We owe a huge debt to Geoffrey Munn, Katherine Purcell and Kieran McCarthy at Wartski for constantly showing us items and for their unstint-ing help in providing photographs; to David Callaghan, former Director of Hancocks, and his late colleague, Malcolm Carr ( whose pioneering account of the Saulinis appeared in 1975); to Madeleine Popper, and to the late Raizel Halpin of Ares Rare in New York, who sold many pieces to Mrs Hull Grundy. A book of this kind cannot be written without financial assis-tance and the contributions of three bodies and individuals have been critical. First, the award of a six- month Research Fellowship from the Leverhulme Trust allowed Judy Rudoe's place at the British Museum to be filled so that she could work full- time on it. We thank, too, the three referees who gave their support: Jonathan Marsden, Richard Edgcumbe and Marcia Pointon. During that time, long- standing friends and supporters of the British Museum, who also happen to be passionate about jewellery, learnt about the project and immediately offered to extend her time away by paying for her replacement to stay on for an extra two months. They wish to remain anonymous but are no less deserving of our gratitude. Lastly, and by far the largest contribution financially, was an exceedingly generous grant towards the production costs of the book from The Isaacson- Draper Foundation of New York. Publishing well- produced books has become increasingly expen-sive; this enabled us to use the illustrations we needed rather than those we could afford, and the speed with which the Foundation's trustees responded to our tentative request meant that we could concentrate on the research and writing instead of fund- raising. At the British Museum we wish to thank the Keeper of the Department of Prehistory and Europe, Leslie Webster, for her ini-tial support of the Leverhulme application, and her successor, Jonathan Williams, for generously allowing Judy Rudoe to return part- time until the text was handed over to the British Museum Press. Her replacement, Natasha Awais- Dean, deserves our thanks, as do other colleagues who undertook extra duties in her absence. Many excellent new photographs were taken by the Museum's chief photographer, John Williams. Many items were specially cleaned for this by Rachel Berridge, Maickel van Bellegem and oth-ers from the metals conservation section. Katerina Pantelides and Anna Lisa Jensen worked as volunteers to help with assembling images and text corrections, Amy Dale helped prepare the index and Christopher Coles scanned images with remarkable speed. At the British Museum Press, the book has been expertly han-dled by Teresa Francis, who has been unfailingly supportive and inspiring, while Ray Watkins's sensitive design has enhanced our text in a way that we never imagined possible. The copy- editing was undertaken by Elisabeth Ingles, the proof- reading by Bev Zimmern, and production by Charlotte Cade. Axelle Russo helped us obtain the 500 images from nearly seventy different institu-tions. We are especially grateful to those who waived or reduced their reproduction fees. Lastly, we owe much to our anonymous readers, every one of whose suggestions we adopted, and to those who kindly took thetrouble to read parts of our text at draft stage: Jonathan Marsden, Jane Perry, Catherine Howell, Nick Barnard, Rosemary Watt, George Dalgleish, Alex Ward, Raghnall O' Floinn, Ben Roberts, Paul Collins, Richard Parkinson, Timothy Clark, Marc Bascou, Rüdiger Joppien, James Draper and Annamarie Sandecki. Their comments, along with those of Richard Edgcumbe and Antony Griffiths, have saved us from countless errors and made this a much better book. Charlotte Gere and Judy Rudoe PREFACE11

QUEEN VICTORIA A LIFE IN JEWELLERY