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was formed in childhood by her passion for the theatre, opera and ballet. Her love of strong colours and floral trimmings was remarked on, usually disparagingly, by many observers. Although she was indifferent to fashion ( she deplored crinolines, which she attempted to ban at court), she was very interested in clothes and jewellery - her own in an objective but uncritical way and other people's with a reporter's eye for telling detail. Her comments in her Journal reveal her own views about social usage, and provide a contrast with the alter-native story derived from fashion journalism and advertising. Many thousands of guests were received at Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle, and displays of her dresses were put on by Madame Tussaud; through these means a court style percolated out into the wider mar-ket for precious ornaments and accessories. Victoria broke new ground as a role model for her ordinary subjects. Her passage through the rites of marriage, childbirth, widowhood and mourning brought empathy and moral weight to her position. The fact that her personal and domestic circumstances so closely matched those of her subjects had an impact on jewellery and popular taste in general. Lord Salisbury, one of her Prime Ministers, summed up the situation: 1 Above left Brooch with drop- shaped pendant and long earrings. English, about 1835- 40. H. of brooch 6.6 cm. London, Victoria and Albert Museum, Joicey Bequest This stamped gold jewellery set with cabochon garnets, typical of the date, closely resembles that worn by Victoria in Fig. 2. 2 Above Victoria( Alexandrina Victoria, 1819- 1901). Colour lithograph after Richard James Lane ( 1800- 72), from La Perle, Paris, 1838. British Museum The young Queen wears a ferronnièrewith a set of garnet brooch and long earrings. The ribbon of the Order of the Garter has been erroneously coloured in red instead of blue. If the rest of the colouring of this French version of the print is to be relied upon, Victoria chose to wear the national colours of red, white and blue.

83 Cross and brooch in carved ivory. Left: Pendant, cross of thorns with entwined holly; right: Oak- leaf spray with empty acorn cup. English, about 1850- 70. H. of cross 6.5 cm. Bedford, Cecil Higgins Art Gallery, Hull Grundy Gift The cross incorporates the thorn branch and holly, two symbols of the Passion of Jesus Christ. The oak means strength or enduring love; the empty acorn cup, a commonly used motif in mourning jewellery, signifies the inevitable end of love. Mrs Forbes- Gibbon wears ivory ornaments with her jet jewellery ( Fig. 85). sophisticated development of the trade in the 1870s. 27In a portrait photograph taken in India in 1878 Mrs Angelina Forbes- Gibbon is wearing masses of jet jewellery in long strings and pendants ( Fig. 85). A similar suite of very fine jet ornaments, worn in Edinburgh in the second half of the nineteenth century by Mrs Craig, mother of the historian Thomas Craig Brown, is preserved in a Scottish museum ( Fig. 82). There were alternatives to jet. A pendant pearl cross retailed by Packer in about 1855 proclaims its suitability for mourning, as it is white ( i. e. colourless), made of pearls ( for ' tears') and in the form of a cross with a forget- me- not at the junction of the arms of the cross, sig-nifying love ( Fig. 84). In the instructions on royal mourning issued by theLondon Gazette white ornaments and pearls are allowable at ' second mourning' ( i. e. after six or eight weeks). Ivory when used for mourning jewellery employs conventional motifs like an oak- spray with one empty acorn cup, which stands for the inevitable end of love in death, and holly- or ivy- entwined crosses ( Fig. 83). Holly stands for the Crown of Thorns with red berries as drops of blood. 84 Pearl cross pendant. English, retailed by Charles Packer, about 1870. H. 5.5 cm. Cheltenham Art Gallery and Museum, Hull Grundy Gift The pearls are threaded on a cruciform mother- of- pearl frame. The central flower is probably the commonly used forget- me- not for remembrance. 82 Whitby jet mourning jewellery worn by Mrs Craig of Edinburgh. English, second half of the 19th century. Edinburgh, National Museums of Scotland The full set consists of the massive chain with anchor, three pairs of bracelets, a delicate drop necklace with a pendant cross, a brooch, a comb and a bow- tied necklace of close- strung faceted drops. 126