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was designed to open so that the bulb could be easily replaced. There were hairpins in the form of crescents and stars, mounted on double prongs - the popular fourchesof the late nine-teenth century ( Fig. 164). For ladies there was also an electric ostrich- feather fan with central illuminated rosette, as well as earrings, rings, bracelets, sleeve buttons and brooches, includ-ing an owl's head to rival the diamond owl's head brooch shown by Massin at the 1878 Paris Exhibition. 41For men there were stick- pins, one of which had a large ' diamond' on the front, the projected beams of which enabled the wearer to read his paper or to find his way home in the dark! A cane handle had the same idea, with a large stone facing in each direction. 42 Trouvé's publicity leaflet claimed that ladies could make their entrance at a soirée ' covered in tiny sources of electric light beside which the Sancy or the Regent would pale into insignificance' ( Fig. 165). 43Their great success, inevitably, was on the stage. There was one problem, however: the small battery lasted for barely half an hour, so either a double-size battery had to be concealed in the clothing, or the user would have to recharge it, for which Trouvé built a portable accumulator cased in ebonite and hidden behind the back or worn on a belt round the waist. 44The ballet La Farandoleat the Paris Opéra in December 1883 owed its success in large part to Trouvé's electricmise- en- scène, and in London the opening production of the Empire Theatre in April 1884, Florimond Hervé's musical drama Chilpéricwith its ballet of fifty illuminated amazons, was roundly held to be the ne plus ultra of magnificence in staging. 45The most astonishing use of these electric light- bulb jewels was for a ' living chandelier' composed of acrobatic dancers at the Théâtre du Chatelet. 46Trouvé had followers: a patent for similar jewellery was taken out in America in 1885.47 Trouvé's final hour of glory in the jewellery arena was in February 1887, when he pro-vided the electric lighting for the examination of the French crown jewels in the Finance ELECTRICITY211 163 A & B Battery- operated electric jewels designed by Gustave Trouvé ( 1839- 1902). From La Nature, 1879 The hummingbird was able to beat its wings, the skull gnashed its teeth or rolled its eyes and the rabbit hammered the bell with drumsticks. The section drawing of the rabbit ( above right) shows how this worked with the aid of a hollow pin.

228THE CULT OF NOVELTY 183 Right Necklace set with hummingbird heads, in the original case; made and retailed by Harry Emanuel, London, 1865- 70. L. of case 23.3 cm. British Museum, given by Robert C. Kwok The original case dates the necklace to within five years. The lid records Emanuel's corner premises at 18 New Bond Street and 12 Clifford Street, which he occupied from 1865 until his retirement in 1873. At the back, below the hinge, is the case- maker's impressed stamp, LA for Louis Autra, who was at 80 Wardour Street, Soho, from 1851 to 1870. 184 Below Detail of centre section of hummingbird necklace. H. of emerald-green head excluding setting 3.2 cm The scarlet hummingbird heads are placed within the case in opposing directions so that the viewer was struck by the colour from all angles. The feathers are attached to a gold base, and the gold beaks are short and curved instead of long and straight ( see Fig. 183).