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195 Shell jewellery. English, using local and imported shells, 1870s and 1880s. L. of shell feather 9.5 cm. London, Victoria and Albert Museum Earrings: mussels, cowries ( probably carved in Italy) and spiky Venus comb murex. Leaf brooch: green haliotis shell. Butterly wings: pearl- shell slivers. All were purchased from P. L. Simmonds in 1875 except the winkle necklet, acquired in 1888 from the Italian Exhibition at Earls Court. 238 Exhibition in London from Francati & Santamaria, a Roman firm which had a London out-let in Hatton Garden and played a major role as importer of Italian jewellery, from cameos, shells and coral to gold Etruscan revival jewels. The 1888 purchase comprised some thirty pieces, including whole shells cut with cameos to show the use of the different layers of shell and which part of the shell was used for cameos. 62Alongside these were carved shell brooches - a vine leaf carved in pink shell, fish and feathers in mottled browns and purples. 63 In contrast to these simple pieces were highly prized shells set in gold for more formal wear, such as the Australian clam or neotrigonia shell with its polished pearly lustre. A neck-lace set with a row of graduated shells alternating with gold beads was sold by John Brogden,

NATURE IMITATING NATURE239 197 Below Bracelet of a trelliswork of shells threaded on strings of tiny glass beads. European, mid- 19th century. L. 18.5 cm. Glasgow, Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum One of a pair of bracelets, part of a large group of similar shell jewellery given to Glasgow by various donors, one of whom stated that the pieces were brought back from Russia in the mid- 19th century by her grandfather. The shells are the same as those in the painted jewellery in Fig. 196. 196 Young Beauty, by Emma Sandys ( 1843- 77). Oil on panel, English, signed and dated 1864. Whereabouts unknown The young woman wears a hair ornament and necklace of small shells threaded on red cord.