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brought back from foreign travels were in shell; they could be cut while the purchaser was present. Despite the difference in techniques, the carvers of hardstone and shell cameos were often the same people. The Saulini family of Rome for instance did both; so did Neri. Girometti cut cameos only in hardstone, ' a very superior style of art to that on shell' according to Murray's Handbooks, while Giovanni Dies is listed only as working in shell. In 1867 Neri charged 20 to 25 scudifor a shell cameo and 150 to 200 scudifor one in hardstone. 4In the 1850s Saulini, Dies and Neri were all in the via della Croce; by 1867 they had moved to adja-cent streets, but they remained, along with almost all the gem- engravers, in the jewellers' quarter around the Piazza di Spagna. The range of price was important in enabling a relatively wide social spread for cameos: wearing them implied not wealth but knowledge and learning. They were redolent of a dis-tinguished history from the Greek and Roman world and the Renaissance. Many cameo subjects were derived from classical sculpture; others were from contemporary sculpture perhaps seen in Rome, or from famous paintings; the images were evocative even if the source was only half remembered. The Victorian cameo was a respected medium for official portraiture, as it had been in antiquity and the Renaissance, for images of the Great Men of history and as a personal portrait fulfilling the same role as a miniature or photograph. Indeed, cameo portraits 466 Three shell cameo brooches ( enlarged). French, English and Italian, 1860- 70. Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum, Hull Grundy Gift Left: Head of Christ, commessocameo ( mixed materials) in helmet shell, horn, coral, abalone shell, signed Lemant, in a stamped gold setting. French, about 1860. H. 6.5 cm. Right: The Angel of the Annunciation in a gold brooch- setting by Watherston & Brogden. Italian, the setting English, dated 1863- 4 from the information on the lid- satin of the surviving original display case. Below: Auroraafter Guido Reni, in a gold brooch- setting. Italian, about 1870. W. 7.2 cm. Shell was quicker and cheaper to cut and also weighed less, enabling very large cameos like these and the comb mount ( Fig. 479) to be practical. The angel is a much- repeated shell cameo subject in English jewellery. 465

470VICTORIAN CAMEOS ( Queen Victoria). He was responsible for the large commessocameo of Queen Victoria in Garter robes, taken from the portrait by Thomas Sully ( Fig. 470) and shown by Dafrique in 1851. The cameo image in reverse was taken from a lithograph by Henri Grevedon, also in reverse, published in Paris ( see Fig. 10). 13Dafrique's prize medal was awarded for ' polychromatic cameos'. The ' Apollo' in its Caillot & Peck setting is based on the full- length statue in the Vatican known as the ' Apollo Belvedere', a popular Roman souvenir much repeated in cameo ( Fig. 471). The onyx portrait of Queen Victoria copies Wyon's head from the ' Gothic' crown piece first issued in the English coinage in 1841; it was possibly cut for the Queen's State Visit to Paris in 1855 when portraits of her were in demand. 14 France was unusual in maintaining, alongside cameo jewellery made to be worn, a tradition of virtuoso gem- engraving, which was encouraged by Napoléon III and later presi-dents of the Republic as a national art. Hence the copying of national treasures in the Cabinet de Médailles in Paris by, for example, Georges Bissinger, who exhibited a series of cameos, many copied from Renaissance gems, in successive International Exhibitions, Paris in 1867, Vienna in 1873 and Paris again in 1878 ( Fig. 472). His cameo head of Marie de Médicis from that source was set by Carlo Giuliano in a French Renaissance- style enamelled setting in the manner pioneered by Froment- Meurice in about 1865 ( see Fig. 320). 15 Large- scale cameos were exhibited at the annual Paris Salon up to the 1890s, many of which were acquired for the State. 16Adolphe David, leading French engraver and Salon exhibitor under the Second Empire, employed an onyx displaying three coloured layers against a densely black ground for his Phaeton driving Apollo's Chariotof about 1876 ( Fig. 473). 17Although the chariot is a quadriga, the model is a standard Hellenistic type of ' Aurora driving her Biga' ( for Saulini's interpretation of this type, see Fig. 476). David's design is much more ambitious than his classical source, particularly in capturing the vivid straining of the four horses. It is an exceptional example of late Neo- classical gem- engraving in its 470 Commessocameo brooch, Queen Victoria in Garter robes, by Paul Victor Lebas ( fl. 1851- 76). French, Paris, signed and dated 1851. Helmet shell ( Cassis rufa) inlaid with enamelled gold, silver, diamonds and emeralds. H. 6.1 cm. London, Victoria and Albert Museum The cameo, in a setting of gold with table- cut and cabochon emeralds and rose diamonds, enamelled with the roses of Lancaster and York, was probably exhibited by F. Dafrique of Paris in London in 1851 ( he is listed as exhibitor of ' polychromatic cameos, with metal and enamel ornaments'). 471A & B Cameo brooches with heads of Apollo ( detail left) and Queen Victoria, signed by Paul Victor Lebas. French, Paris, 1850s. H. of cameos 4.8 cm and 2.8 cm. British Museum, Hull Grundy Gift