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470VICTORIAN CAMEOS ( Queen Victoria). He was responsible for the large commessocameo of Queen Victoria in Garter robes, taken from the portrait by Thomas Sully ( Fig. 470) and shown by Dafrique in 1851. The cameo image in reverse was taken from a lithograph by Henri Grevedon, also in reverse, published in Paris ( see Fig. 10). 13Dafrique's prize medal was awarded for ' polychromatic cameos'. The ' Apollo' in its Caillot & Peck setting is based on the full- length statue in the Vatican known as the ' Apollo Belvedere', a popular Roman souvenir much repeated in cameo ( Fig. 471). The onyx portrait of Queen Victoria copies Wyon's head from the ' Gothic' crown piece first issued in the English coinage in 1841; it was possibly cut for the Queen's State Visit to Paris in 1855 when portraits of her were in demand. 14 France was unusual in maintaining, alongside cameo jewellery made to be worn, a tradition of virtuoso gem- engraving, which was encouraged by Napoléon III and later presi-dents of the Republic as a national art. Hence the copying of national treasures in the Cabinet de Médailles in Paris by, for example, Georges Bissinger, who exhibited a series of cameos, many copied from Renaissance gems, in successive International Exhibitions, Paris in 1867, Vienna in 1873 and Paris again in 1878 ( Fig. 472). His cameo head of Marie de Médicis from that source was set by Carlo Giuliano in a French Renaissance- style enamelled setting in the manner pioneered by Froment- Meurice in about 1865 ( see Fig. 320). 15 Large- scale cameos were exhibited at the annual Paris Salon up to the 1890s, many of which were acquired for the State. 16Adolphe David, leading French engraver and Salon exhibitor under the Second Empire, employed an onyx displaying three coloured layers against a densely black ground for his Phaeton driving Apollo's Chariotof about 1876 ( Fig. 473). 17Although the chariot is a quadriga, the model is a standard Hellenistic type of ' Aurora driving her Biga' ( for Saulini's interpretation of this type, see Fig. 476). David's design is much more ambitious than his classical source, particularly in capturing the vivid straining of the four horses. It is an exceptional example of late Neo- classical gem- engraving in its 470 Commessocameo brooch, Queen Victoria in Garter robes, by Paul Victor Lebas ( fl. 1851- 76). French, Paris, signed and dated 1851. Helmet shell ( Cassis rufa) inlaid with enamelled gold, silver, diamonds and emeralds. H. 6.1 cm. London, Victoria and Albert Museum The cameo, in a setting of gold with table- cut and cabochon emeralds and rose diamonds, enamelled with the roses of Lancaster and York, was probably exhibited by F. Dafrique of Paris in London in 1851 ( he is listed as exhibitor of ' polychromatic cameos, with metal and enamel ornaments'). 471A & B Cameo brooches with heads of Apollo ( detail left) and Queen Victoria, signed by Paul Victor Lebas. French, Paris, 1850s. H. of cameos 4.8 cm and 2.8 cm. British Museum, Hull Grundy Gift

THE CULT OF THE CAMEO471 473 Three- layer onyx cameo, ' The Fall of Phaeton', signed by Adolphe David ( 1828- 96). French, Paris, about 1870. W. 7.6 cm. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Milton Weil collection, 1940 David used the three colours of this layered agate with extraordinary dexterity to vary the colours of the horses and to suggest the translucency of Phaeton's draperies. This is a Salon- quality piece from Emperor Napoléon's favoured cameo- cutter and frequent exhibitor. 472 Onyx cameo of Marie de Médicis, by Georges Bissinger ( b. Hanau, fl. 1860- 90), in an enamelled gold pendant by Carlo Giuliano ( 1831- 95). The cameo French, Paris, the setting English, London, about 1867. H. 10.4 cm. London, Victoria and Albert Museum, presented by C. & A. Giuliano, 1900 The pendant is set with rubies, sapphires and pearls. Its early date is confirmed by the use of Giuliano's first applied maker's label, with crossed ' CG' imitating the Castellani crossed ' CC' mark. Bissinger exhibited cameos at the 1867 International Exhibition in Paris. subtle modelling and skilful use of colour, and was almost certainly an exhibition piece; it seems never to have been given a setting, but to have been destined for a gem- cabinet. Scholars and collectors, like the popular author and gem- collector C. W. King, author of Antique Gems and their Origins, Uses and Value( 1860 and three further editions), had little time for modern gem- engraving, regarding it as an art in decline. This was partly on account of the number of fakes that were foisted on unwary collectors. At a time when many Old Master paintings and ancient marbles in ancestral collections were being subjected to scholarly scrutiny and found wanting, through misattribution as much as actual faking, similar assessments were taking place in the field of gem- collecting. In a survey of the history of gem- collecting in his Handbook of Engraved Gems ( 1885) King looks at what he terms ' fraudulent ingenuity': ' It may be asserted with confidence that for every antique gem of note fully a dozen of its counter-feits are now in circulation.' 18 This was enough to scare off less well- versed collectors, and even King himself proved vulnerable in this respect. In the Handbookof 1885 he was obliged to admit his own mistake, published in the third edition of Antique Gems( 1872), regarding the Neo- classical gem- engraver Domenico Calabresi, whom he had described as a sixteenth- century artist patronized by Pope Gregory XIII. Calabresi's Vulcan throwing his Net over his Wife Venus and her Lover Mars, the remarkable seven- layer cameo cited by King, was in fact cut in about 1830 and set in the lid of a box for Prince Anatole Demidoff. In spite of King's attempts to have the cameo recog-nized as ' modern', the mistaken identity has persisted to this day ( Figs 474, 475). 19 Perversely, given King's view of contemporary gem- engraving, it was the exposure of faking and forgery by him and his fellow authors that made modern cameos, which were cer-tifiably genuine, popular with the new Grand Tourists from the well- to- do middle class. The