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THE CULT OF THE CAMEO471 473 Three- layer onyx cameo, ' The Fall of Phaeton', signed by Adolphe David ( 1828- 96). French, Paris, about 1870. W. 7.6 cm. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Milton Weil collection, 1940 David used the three colours of this layered agate with extraordinary dexterity to vary the colours of the horses and to suggest the translucency of Phaeton's draperies. This is a Salon- quality piece from Emperor Napoléon's favoured cameo- cutter and frequent exhibitor. 472 Onyx cameo of Marie de Médicis, by Georges Bissinger ( b. Hanau, fl. 1860- 90), in an enamelled gold pendant by Carlo Giuliano ( 1831- 95). The cameo French, Paris, the setting English, London, about 1867. H. 10.4 cm. London, Victoria and Albert Museum, presented by C. & A. Giuliano, 1900 The pendant is set with rubies, sapphires and pearls. Its early date is confirmed by the use of Giuliano's first applied maker's label, with crossed ' CG' imitating the Castellani crossed ' CC' mark. Bissinger exhibited cameos at the 1867 International Exhibition in Paris. subtle modelling and skilful use of colour, and was almost certainly an exhibition piece; it seems never to have been given a setting, but to have been destined for a gem- cabinet. Scholars and collectors, like the popular author and gem- collector C. W. King, author of Antique Gems and their Origins, Uses and Value( 1860 and three further editions), had little time for modern gem- engraving, regarding it as an art in decline. This was partly on account of the number of fakes that were foisted on unwary collectors. At a time when many Old Master paintings and ancient marbles in ancestral collections were being subjected to scholarly scrutiny and found wanting, through misattribution as much as actual faking, similar assessments were taking place in the field of gem- collecting. In a survey of the history of gem- collecting in his Handbook of Engraved Gems ( 1885) King looks at what he terms ' fraudulent ingenuity': ' It may be asserted with confidence that for every antique gem of note fully a dozen of its counter-feits are now in circulation.' 18 This was enough to scare off less well- versed collectors, and even King himself proved vulnerable in this respect. In the Handbookof 1885 he was obliged to admit his own mistake, published in the third edition of Antique Gems( 1872), regarding the Neo- classical gem- engraver Domenico Calabresi, whom he had described as a sixteenth- century artist patronized by Pope Gregory XIII. Calabresi's Vulcan throwing his Net over his Wife Venus and her Lover Mars, the remarkable seven- layer cameo cited by King, was in fact cut in about 1830 and set in the lid of a box for Prince Anatole Demidoff. In spite of King's attempts to have the cameo recog-nized as ' modern', the mistaken identity has persisted to this day ( Figs 474, 475). 19 Perversely, given King's view of contemporary gem- engraving, it was the exposure of faking and forgery by him and his fellow authors that made modern cameos, which were cer-tifiably genuine, popular with the new Grand Tourists from the well- to- do middle class. The

547 Assyrian style 49, 99, 101, 171, 376, 432- 3 Astor, William, 1stViscount ( 1848- 1919) 85 Atlantic cable 197- 8 Attenborough, Richard 264- 5 Audouard, Louis ( 1814- 80) and Philibert 359 Augusta Victoria, Princess of Prussia ( wife of Wilhelm II, Emperor of Germany; 1858- 1921) 408, 417 Australian jewellery and materials 117, 238, 240, 282, 481 Autra, Louis 228 Azeglio, Massimo d' ( 1798- 1866) 402 Bacher, Josef ( 1823- 86) 426, 434 Backes, Georg Carl 368, 372 Backes, J. F. & Co. 257, 259 Backes & Strauss 391- 2 Bailey, G. W. 144 Baillie, Albert, Dean of Windsor ( 1864- 1955) 42 Baillie, Lady Frances ( néeBruce) 56 Ball, Black & Co. 72, 197 Balmoral Castle 40- 43, 52, 58- 9, 67, 73, 454 Balzac, Honoré de ( 1799- 1850) 356- 7 banknote jewellery 190- 91 Bapst, Evrard 95 Bapst, Maison 47, 49, 85, 88, 92, 273, 286 Barbédienne, Ferdinand ( 1810- 92) 274 Barberi, Michelangelo ( 1878- 1867) 413 Barbet de Jouy, Henry ( 1812- 96) 361 Barrucci, La ( Giulia Beneni, 1837?- 71) 88 Bassano, Alexander ( 1829- 1913) 75, 77, 108, 349 Bauer, Hermann ( 1833- 1919) 368- 9, 370 Baugrand, Gustave ( 1826- 70) 94, 97, 271- 3, 298- 9, 361- 2, 382 Bautte & Moynier 492, 499 Bazzanti ( jeweller) 425 Béarn- Viana, Prince de ( 1840- 93) 362 Beatrice, Princess, later Princess Henry of Battenberg ( 1857- 1944) 37- 8, 74, 204 Beaufort, Henry Somerset, 7th Duke of ( 1792- 1853) 477 Beauharnais, Hortense de ( 1783- 1837) 332- 3 Beaumont & Cie 222 Bedford, Elizabeth, Duchess of ( néeSackville- West, wife of 9th Duke; 1818- 97) 28- 9 Bedford, Georgiana, Duchess of ( néeGordon, wife of 6th Duke; 1781- 1853) 446 Beecher, Henry Ward ( 1813- 87) 157 Bell, Henry ( crown jeweller) 78- 9 Bellezza, Niccolò 285, 424- 5 Belmont, Mrs Caroline Slidell Perry, wife of August Belmont 500 Benoîton chain 207- 8, 214 Benson, J. W. 224, 253, 417 Béranger, E. 363 Berini, Antonio ( 1770- 1830) 411 Berlin iron 101, 196, 257- 8, 332 Berri, Duchesse de ( Caroline Ferdinande of Bourbon- Two Sicilies, 1798- 1870) 334 Bertin, Rose ( 1747- 1813) 95 Bertuzzi, Camillo ( 1819- 94) 349, 353 Beschor, Louis ( 1857- 1929) 369 Bethnal Green Museum ( now Museum of Childhood) 225- 6 betrothal jewellery 162, 171, 176, 186, 190 Betteridge, William 77; see alsoHarker & Betteridge Bidney, Jane ( lace- maker) 26, 30 Birchall, Dearman ( 1828- 97) and Emily 117, 282, 400- 1, 422, 479, 485 Birdwood, George ( 1832- 1917) 280, 295- 6, 300 Birmingham jewellery 16, 145- 8, 190- 93, 196, 198- 9, 201- 3, 233- 4, 258, 270, 279, 314, 332, 461 Birnie Philip, Rosalind ( 1873- 1958) 130 birthday jewellery 19, 45- 7, 57, 155, 160, 164, 166, 190- 91 Bissinger, Georges 287, 361, 466, 470- 71 Blagden, Isabella ( 1816/ 17- 83) 139, 490 Blanc, Charles ( 1813- 82) 209 Blender, August 219 Bloomfield- Moore, Clara ( 1824- 99) 494- 5 Bloomingdale's, New York 215- 16, 245 Boehm, Joseph Edgar ( 1834- 90) 477 bog oak 124, 196, 262- 3, 277, 284, 378, 445, 448, 452- 3, 460- 61, 486 Bolckow, Harriet ( wife of Henry William; d. 1890) 100- 1, 274, 390, 430 Bolin, Edward 413; see alsoJahn & Bolin Bone, Henry ( 1755- 1834) 38 Bonnat, Léon ( 1833- 1922) 92 INDEX Aberdeen, Ishbel, Countess of ( néeCoutts Marjoribanks, 1857- 1939) 453 ' Abyssinian' gold 197- 8, 205- 6 Accarisi, Giuseppe 285 Accarisi, S. & Nipote 424 Acheson ( of Dublin) 263 Adam, J. S. & Co. 283 Adams, Mrs Henry ( Marion ' Clover' Hooper, 1843- 85) 91, 352, 485, 498, 500 Adeane, Marie seeMallet Adelaide of Saxe- Meiningen, Queen ( wife of William IV; 1792- 1849) 18, 22- 3, 48, 52, 71, 82, 135 Aichison, James ( of Edinburgh) 280 Airlie, David Graham Drummond Ogilvy, 5th Earl of ( 1826- 81) 176 Akers, Benjamin Paul ( 1825- 61) 412 Albert VIII, Prince von Thurn and Taxis ( 1867- 1952) 95 Albert Edward, Prince of Wales ( Bertie), later Edward VII ( 1841- 1910) 36, 41- 2, 54, 58, 60- 74, 77- 8, 88, 90, 108, 135, 138, 148, 159, 162, 170, 191- 2, 199, 205, 234, 251, 296, 325, 441, 450, 454, 464, 478 marriage 16, 58- 63, 163 visit to Egypt 197, 380 visit to India 74, 245, 286, 294, 296 visits to Rome 413, 478- 9 Albert of Saxe- Coburg- Gotha, Prince Consort ( 1819- 61) 14- 79 passim, 113, 117, 124- 5, 135, 242, 244, 252, 263, 338, 357, 377, 389, 448- 9, 477, 488 death of 124- 5, 155, 160, 162, 165, 191, 264, 270 and Great Exhibition ( London 1851) 44- 7, 256 visits to Ireland 445- 6, 453 Albert Victor, Prince, Duke of Clarence ( 1864- 92) 78 Alcock, Sir J. Rutherford ( 1809- 97) 308- 9 Alcott, Louisa May ( 1832- 88) 502 Alexander II of Russia ( 1818- 81) 345, 348 Alexander III of Russia ( 1845- 94) 64, 68, 70- 71 Alexandra of Denmark, Princess of Wales ( Alix), later Queen Alexandra ( 1844- 1925) 36, 43- 4, 54, 58, 60- 72, 77- 8, 106, 108, 119, 125, 145, 148- 9, 170, 191, 193, 221, 229, 324- 5, 381, 413, 415, 439- 41, 478 marriage 16, 58- 64, 162- 3, 165, 181 visit to Egypt 197 wedding presents 59- 65, 108, 163, 181, 278, 295, 348, 380, 437- 41, 456 Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress of Nicholas I of Russia, Dowager Empress of Russia ( 1798- 1860) 82 Alexandra Palace 233 Alfonso II, King of Spain ( 1857- 85) 360 Alfred, Prince, Duke of Edinburgh and Saxe- Coburg- Gotha ( 1844- 1900) 41, 67- 70, 78, 317, 348, 454, 457 Alice, Princess, later Grand Duchess of Hesse- Darmstadt ( 1843- 78) 41, 54, 57- 8, 60, 62, 160, 162, 193, 344- 5, 348, 413 Allen, Thomas & Co., Montreal 147- 8 Alma- Tadema, Laura 131 Alma- Tadema, Sir Lawrence ( 1836- 1912) 413 aluminium 192, 200, 203- 6 amber 257, 502- 3 American Civil War 182, 412, 498 Amsinck, Helene Marie Antonie, wife of Erdwin Amsinck 502- 3 amuletic and magical jewellery 170, 179, 183- 5, 224- 5, 240- 42, 245, 455, 458, 487, 496- 7 Angeli, Heinrich von ( 1840- 1925) 66, 75, 373 Angers, David d' ( 1788- 1856) 357 Anglo- Saxon style 117, 266- 7, 377, 432 Angoulême, Marie- Thérèse Charlotte, Duchesse d' ( 1778- 1851) 49, 84, 92, 95 Ansorge, Carl 421 archaeological style 9, 178, 184- 5, 186- 7, 262, 264- 75, 277, 285- 6, 376- 461, 473, 477, 502, 504 Arcot diamonds 265 Argyll, George Douglas Campbell, 8th Duke of ( 1823- 1900) 67, 436, 456 Arthur, Prince, Duke of Connaught ( 1850- 1942) 42, 46- 7, 447- 8 artist's palette jewels 148- 9, 191 artistic dress 118, 128- 33 Art- Union 15, 25, 76, 380, 473, 479, 481 Ascione, Giovanni 285 Ashanti gold 74, 198- 9, 247 Ashbee, Charles Robert ( 1863- 1942) 132, 329 Ashburton, Louisa, néeStewart- Mackenzie ( wife of 2nd Baron; 1827- 1903) 131, 153, 468 Bööcke, F. R. P. 339 Borgen, A. & Co. 277, 280, 324, 430- 31, 437, 440- 43 Borghese, Prince Camillo ( 1775- 1832) 473 Borghese, Princess Pauline ( sister of Napoléon I; 1780- 1825) 467- 8 Borradaile, Charles 414 botanical jewellery 30- 31, 70- 71, 152, 154, 160, 170- 76, 180, 218, 235- 6, 291, 496, 515 ( n. 57) Bott, Thomas ( 1828?- 70) 430, 518 ( n. 68) Botta, Paul- Emile ( 1802- 70) 387- 8 Boucard, Adolphe ( 1839- 1904) 230, 232 Boucheron, Frédéric ( 1830- 1902) 72, 97, 101, 136, 172, 274, 280, 283- 4, 286, 289- 91, 311, 361- 3, 435, 500, 529 ( n. 27) Boulgaris, Sotirio ( 1857- 1932) 327 bouquet holder 23, 50, 60, 62, 298 Bourdoncle, Honoré ( 1823- 93) 204- 5, 363 Bowes, Josephine 443 Bradley- Martin, Cornelia ( Countess of Craven) 72 Bradley- Martin, Cornelia ( néeSherman) 92, 386 Bragg, T. & J. 193, 270- 71, 279, 350, 352 Brateau, Jules ( 1844- 1923) 289 Brett, John ( 1830- 1902) 113- 14 Bridge, John Gawler 333 Bright & Sons ( of Scarborough) 197, 279, 391 Britannia Rubber & Kamptulicon Company 207 British Museum history and early collections 199, 335, 337, 364, 376- 7, 383, 387- 8, 393, 396- 7, 406, 426, 435, 437, 469, 473- 4 Brogden, John ( fl. 1842- 85) 7- 8, 100- 1, 144, 149, 199, 238, 273, 275- 8, 285- 6,346- 7, 349- 50, 352- 3,382,389- 90, 413, 426, 430, 432, 452, 479- 81; see alsoWatherston & Brogden Brontë, Charlotte ( 1816- 55) 109 Broschier, Franz ( 1852- 1926) 369 Brown, John ( 1826- 83) 73, 78 Browning, Elizabeth Barrett ( 1806- 61) 114, 139, 399, 402- 3, 412, 490, 494- 5, 501 Browning, Robert ( 1812- 89) 139, 402, 412, 490, 494, 501 Bruce, Mrs ( Woman of the Bedchamber) 59 Brückmann, Peter ( 1865- 1937) 413 Brunswick, Charles II, Duke of ( 1804- 73) 283 Brush, James & Son 446 Buccleuch, Louisa Jane, Duchess of ( néeHamilton, wife of 6th Duke) 204 Buchanan, George ( 1827- 1905) 317, 319 Buckingham Palace 39, 48 Buckner, Richard ( 1812- 83) 28- 9 Buffum, William Arnold ( 1821- 1901) 502 Bulgari seeBoulgaris Burdett- Coutts, 1st Baroness, Angela Georgina ( 1814- 1906) 95, 247, 263, 488 Buren, Angelica Singleton van (' First Lady' of Martin van Buren; 1816- 77) 32- 3 Burges, William ( 1827- 81) 264, 268, 343, 413, 428, 524 ( n. 20) Burne- Jones, Sir Edward ( 1833- 98), and his daughter, Margaret 157 Burnham, Charles ( of Birmingham) 233 Burty, Philippe ( 1830- 90) 311, 357, 359 Bute, John Patrick Crichton- Stuart, 3rd Marquess ( 1847- 1900), and his wife, Gwendolen 181, 343 Butler, Harriet ( néeEdgeworth, d. 1889) 125 Byron, George Gordon, 6th Baron ( 1788- 1824) 133, 388 Cadet- Picard, A. G. 210 Caetani, Enrichetta ( néeHoward, 3rd wife of Michelangelo Caetani) 402 Caetani, Michelangelo, Duke of Sermoneta ( 1804- 82) 85, 401- 3, 406- 11, 417, 421, 469 and classical authors 411; see alsoDante Caillot & Peck 469- 70 Calabresi, Domenico 471- 2 Caldwell, James E. 413 Caledon, Jane, Countess of ( d. 1888) 56 Cambridge, Adolphus, 1st Duke of ( 1774- 1850) 62 Cambridge, Augusta of Hesse- Cassel, Duchess of ( wife of 1st Duke; 1797- 1889) 62 Cambridge, George, Prince, 2nd Duke of ( 1819- 1904) 19 Cambridge, Mary Adelaide of Teck, Princess of ( daughter of 1st Duke; 1833- 97) 59, 62 cameos 29, 53, 76, 101, 118, 135, 152, 160, 182, 238, 241, 257, 275, 277- 8, 283, 345- 6, 361, 411, 415, 424, 426, 430- 31, 464- 81, 484, 489- 91, 493- 4, 499- 501, 504 ' lava' cameos 135, 493- 4, 499, 502 Cameron, Julia Margaret ( 1815- 79) 448 Campan, Jeanne- Louise- Henriette, Madame ( 1752- 1822) 95