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© 2010 The Trustees of the British Museum Published in 2010 by The British Museum Press A division of The British Museum Company Ltd 38 Russell Square, London WC1B 3QQ www. britishmuseum. org Charlotte Gere and Judy Rudoe have asserted the right to be identified as the authors of this work ISBN 978 0 7141 2819 1 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Designed and typeset in Trajan and Berkeley Oldstyle by Price Watkins Design Printed and bound in Hong Kong by Printing Express Ltd Half- title page: Chimera brooch by E. Fontenay, c. 1870. Private collection ( see Fig. 426) Frontispiece: Portrait of Grace Rose, by Frederick Sandys, 1866. New Haven ( CT), Yale Center for British Art ( see Fig. 138) Title page: Camellia brooch, 1850- 60. British Museum ( see Fig. 132) Note to readers The captions to the illustrations indicate, where space has allowed, the role of the jeweller who signed the piece or whose name appears on the case. Some are manufacturing jewellers, such as Brogden, Giuliano, or Castellani, while others are retailers only and did not make the pieces they sold. Hancock and Harry Emanuel were both, in that they sold work made for them by others but also made their own. ' By' without any other qualification is used when the role of the jeweller is uncertain. Where the distinction is clear we have used ' made by' to mean made in the firm's own workshops, or ' retailed by' to mean that the piece was bought in from another manufacturer. The workings of the trade are exceedingly complex. No firm would undertake every one of the many specialized operations, such as diamond setting or the supply of jewellers ' findings' ( clasps, brooch pins etc). Even Brogden and Streeter, who advertised their manufacturing capacity, would have had recourse to these specialists. The authors and publisher acknowledge a generous grant towards the production of this book from The Isaacson- Draper Foundation, New York

CONTENTS Preface 7 1QUEEN VICTORIA: A LIFE IN JEWELLERY12 2THE ROLE OF JEWELLERY, PUBLIC AND PRIVATE 80 3JEWELLERY AND DRESS 110 4THE LANGUAGE OF JEWELLERY150 5THE CULT OF NOVELTY 188 What the papers say: jewellery and topical events197 Jewellery and scientific or technical inventions200 The impact of the stage214 Surprise, deception and not so hidden messages218 Nature imitating nature: jewellery and animal products225 6BRITAIN AND THE WORLD248 The International Exhibitions 250 Links with the East: India, the Islamic world, China and Japan 294 The role of ' peasant' and regional jewellery from Continental Europe 316 7NATIONALISM AND HISTORICAL STYLES IN JEWELLERY330 Historical revival jewellery in England 337 Historicism in France: style romantiqueand Renaissance revival 354 Germany and the passion for ' Alt- Deutsch' 367 8ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES AND NATIONAL IDENTITY374 The Egyptian revival 379 The Assyrian revival 387 The Castellani and the Italian Risorgimento 398 The influence of Castellani outside Italy 426 The Scandinavian revival 437 The Celtic revival and Irish national identity 444 The recreation of tradition in Scotland 454 9VICTORIAN CAMEOS462 10SOUVENIRS OF TRAVEL AT HOME AND ABROAD482 Notes 506 Bibliography 539 Illustration acknowledgements 545 Index 547