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America at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876; they record the appearance of new trade rivals such as India and Japan, and the introduction of new categories such as ' peasant' jewellery, for-merly outside the traditional concept of manufactures. Newspaper reports demonstrate the extraordinary exchange mechanism pro-vided by these exhibitions, with contracts being signed for the distribution of objects far from their country of origin, so that these new kinds of ornament, from contemporary living cultures, were seen not merely as exotic rarities but were brought into every-day commercial trade. Advertisements add yet another dimension by recording a more mundane world of jewellery use - the every-day, routine, non- special jewels, and the jokey pieces that would have been beneath the dignity of a great exhibition. These we have culled not only from the newspapers, but also from the illus-trated press - trade journals, fashion and women's magazines. These everyday jewels were popular at a different level, with man-ufacturers targeting a wide market in the local high street rather than Bond Street. Many advertisements placed in consumer as opposed to trade magazines must have been designed to exert pressure on high street jewellers to stock the designs in order to satisfy requests from readers. Such advertisements also demon-strate the astonishing speed with which manufacturers responded to topical news through jewellery design. Because these sources have revealed so much new informa-tion, a large part of what follows has not been published before. A number of major themes have emerged. Marketing is one of them, and it deserves a book in itself. John Culme's Directory of London Gold and Silversmiths, Jewellers and Allied Trades 1838- 1914 ( 1987), with its biographies compiled from sources as diverse as insurance records and Post Office directories, has been an indis-pensable reference tool. Here, we have attempted merely the beginnings of an investigation into the placing within different levels of the market of well- known firms such as Phillips, Brogden and Streeter, how the different manufacturers were linked, the retail trade and the distribution of jewellery. This has taken us into a number of company archives and also the rich resource provided by the Registered Designs volumes in the National Archives. On payment of a small fee, the design was protected from copy-ists for a certain number of years. Streeter apart, the big Bond Street firms did not register designs. Much of what they produced was expensive gem- set pieces, so it would have been beneath them and unnecessary. But for the cheaper ranges of novelty jewellery with a limited life the pirating of designs mattered. Comprehensive PREFACE HISbook offers a new approach to the subject of jewel-lery in the age of Victoria. It is not about the great masterpieces of Victorian jewellery, but about the way in which jewellery in that period, more than any other branch of the applied arts, reflected the preoccupations and aspirations of its owners. Rather than concentrating on the major figures at the top end of the trade, or indeed offering a chronolog-ical survey of the development of styles and fashions, we have tried to understand how the Victorians used jewellery and what it meant to them, both literally and metaphorically. To do this, we have of course relied on surviving jewels in collections across the UK, Continental Europe and America, some hardly known or published. But a prime source of our under-standing we have found rather in contemporary records, both written and visual, chiefly the diaries and letters of the period which give insights into how individuals explained the meaning they attached to jewellery. Fiction takes things a stage further by universalizing these meanings, building character and adding a moral or symbolic dimension. We have selected instances where the implications of choices of clothes or jewels would have been immediately apparent to their readers. Portraits add a further dimension to the language of jewellery: each jewel can be decoded, often disclosing multiple messages. Newspapers have provided a completely different angle, con-firming time and again our conviction that jewellery played a central role in the cultural life of the period. Online newspaper archives, one of the most remarkable advances of the digital age, have enabled us to find in seconds information that would previously have taken months, if not years, to assemble, as well as items we would never even have thought to look for. We have concentrated on The Times and the New York Times, since it soon became evident that we would drown in material if we went much beyond these two papers. We incorporate information from the news pages, a previously understudied area, as much as from society columns, an inven-tion of the period. The Times's daily Court Circular and the reports of royal or official events, society balls and weddings record the changing fashions at court and in the upper levels of society. Indeed, it would be possible to chronicle what Queen Victoria wore for almost every event of her life. Reports on international exhibitions perform something of the same function, but they go further. They chart the rise and fall of different countries in Europe and the moment when Euro-pean dominance in fine jewellery production was shattered by T

us about ornaments considered suitable for daytime as opposed to evening wear; it demonstrates wealth and what people could afford, but not necessarily class. In artistic circles women wore rough silver pieces and unpolished stones to blur differences in levels of wealth. While it is relatively simple to establish a time- frame for the introduction of a model or type of jewel, it is far harder to pin-point its demise. As well as the exchange and sale of second- hand items, catalogues and advertisements dating from the very end of the nineteenth century include types that were introduced at the beginning of Queen Victoria's reign. The steady growth of tourism kept in production local and traditional jewellery, made from indigenous materials and employing a repertoire of locally signif-icant imagery, largely unchanged, for decades. The geographical focus of the book is on Western Europe and America, but it touches on the rest of the world where relevant: America, which played no international role in this field before 1876, is treated in its relation to European jewellery. We make no claim that this is a survey of American jewellery. While including other European countries in some depth, especially France, Germany and Italy, the core of the book is about what jewellery meant in Britain, as seen from a British viewpoint, with Queen Victoria at its heart. The chronological scope covers the period from 1830 to 1901, the girlhood of Queen Victoria to her death, but without including the stylistic revolutions of Art Nouveau or Arts and Crafts, for which the term ' Victorian' is inappropriate. One theme emerging from the wider European perspective, perhaps not previously emphasized in surveys of nineteenth-century jewellery, is the role it played in the promotion of national identity. The myriad strands of nationalism in different countries are here brought together and compared and contrasted. Within Britain, we discovered, Queen Victoria acted as arbiter of many of these fashions to a much greater extent than we had suspected. What she wore influenced what her subjects wore, and this very fact is an aspect of British nationalism. Pride in being British was reflected in how she chose to define Britishness. The strongly waged royal campaign for British manufactures was one aspect of this nationalism, to the extent that widely reported royal trousseaux had to be entirely British- made. Naturally this led to a certain national one- upmanship, pointedly played out by Queen Victoria and Empress Eugénie but fostered just as much by the interna-tional exhibitions. From the initial idea of assembling the whole world under one roof, they became celebrations of national land-marks, such as the Philadelphia centenary in 1876 and Paris in 1889. We have grouped these various themes in the following order. In recognition of the overriding influence of the royal family on taste in jewellery, we begin with the life of Queen Victoria as seen through her jewellery. Almost every aspect of jewellery discussed in subsequent sections is to be found here, and so Chapter 1 pro-vides both an introduction to and a context for the entire book. 8 examination of the Registered Designs for jewellery was beyond the scope of the present study, but it would be a rewarding sub-ject for the future. We have looked briefly at the way in which jewellers exploited the new means of distribution offered by the transport revolution and a universal postal system. The two London-based jewellery trade journals launched in the 1870s meant that buyers around the country saw illustrations of new lines before the manufacturers' travellers reached them with samples. Samples could also be sent by post within days: the consequent mail order business was in full swing by the 1870s in Europe and America. The search for novelty in design may have been in part a conse-quence of the depression in the trade which lasted from 1873 to the end of the century. Quite apart from new items, there was a thriving market in second- hand jewellery; periodicals such as Exchange and Mart( 1868- 71) and its successor Bazaar, Exchange and Mart( 1871- 1900), as well as exchange columns in women's magazines, reveal the tastes and desires of those who left no diaries or letters. Moreover, in an age when women did not have control of their own money, swapping jewellery was a cost- free way of keeping in fashion and having control over at least some aspects of their life. Shopping for jewellery is a theme that recurs throughout the book. We had initially wished to devote a section to it but real-ized it was too big a subject. Nonetheless, we have touched on the range of establishments where jewellery was sold, to indicate that in London alone, beyond Bond Street and the West End at the top end, there were retail jewellers in the manufacturing dis-tricts of Holborn and Clerkenwell, and completely different businesses, gift shops in effect, such as the Baker Street Bazaar, or Rimmel's Emporium in the Strand, where jewellery could be bought amongst a host of other accessories and domestic items. Perma-nent indoor bazaars ( as distinct from temporary charity bazaars) contained individual stalls rented by the week and mostly run by women. While all these outlets serve to emphasize the increasing range of products, we discovered little, beyond the obvious grand diamond pieces, that indicated clear divisions of class in the type of jewellery worn or where it was purchased. The upper echelons of society had their own jeweller, usually one of the big Bond Street firms, and would stick with him for life; but it cannot be said that they never went into the emporia for presents. Shopping in the West End was intimidating, since no prices were marked on the goods. The rise of the new department stores with jewellery depart-ments, like Howell & James or Whiteley's, who maintained fixed prices on everything, encouraged a wider public. To this end, some firms, Streeter for instance, gave prices in their advertisements in The Times. Brogden made a point of the fact that his jewellery was all made on the premises in Covent Garden ( this was an excep-tion among West End firms), enabling him to offer manufacturers' prices. Grappling with issues of class is difficult, but we have tried to show that cheapness is not in itself a class indicator. Cost tells JEWELLERY IN THE AGE OF QUEEN VICTORIA